Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation in Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Alters Cell Function and Pathway-Specific Gene Modulation Reflecting Changes in Cellular Trafficking and Migration

Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.
Molecular pharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.13). 07/2011; 80(4):673-82. DOI: 10.1124/mol.111.071381
Source: PubMed


The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor belonging to the Per-ARNT-Sim family of proteins. These proteins sense molecules and stimuli from the cellular/tissue environment and initiate signaling cascades to elicit appropriate cellular responses. Recent literature reports suggest an important function of AhR in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) biology. However, the molecular mechanisms by which AhR signaling regulates HSC functions are unknown. In previous studies, we and others reported that treatment of mice with the AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) compromises the competitive reconstitution of bone marrow (BM) cells into irradiated host animals. Additional studies indicated a requirement for AhR in hematopoietic cells and not marrow microenvironment cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD-mediated phenotypic and functional changes of HSCs are a result of changes in gene expression that disrupt stem cell numbers and/or their migration. TCDD treatment to mice increased the numbers of phenotypically defined HSCs in BM. These cells showed compromised migration to the BM in vivo and to the chemokine CXCL12 in vitro, as well as increased expression of the leukemia-associated receptors CD184 (CXCR4) and CD44. Gene expression profiles at 6 and 12 h after exposure were consistent with the phenotypic and functional changes observed. The expressions of Scin, Nqo1, Flnb, Mmp8, Ilf9, and Slamf7 were consistently altered. TCDD also disrupted expression of other genes involved in hematological system development and function including Fos, JunB, Egr1, Ptgs2 (Cox2), and Cxcl2. These data support a molecular mechanism for an AhR ligand to disrupt the homeostatic cell signaling of HSCs that may promote altered HSC function.

Download full-text


Available from: Fanny L Casado, May 14, 2014
  • Source
    • "More recently, studies have shown IDO expression to be important in the ability for tumor cells to be immune tolerant [17]–[19]. Additionally, IDO helps in activation of t-regulatory cells, resulting in containment of hyperinflammatory responses and inhibition of t-helper 17 cells recruitment [14]. Importantly, stem cells express the complete kynurenine pathway indicative of its functional role(s) in stem cell biology. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ischemia-Reperfusion (IR) injury of limb remains a significant clinical problem causing secondary complications and restricting clinical recovery, despite rapid restoration of blood flow and successful surgery. In an attempt to further improve post ischemic tissue repair, we investigated the effect of a local administration of bone marrow derived stem cells (BMDSCs) in the presence or absence of immune-regulatory enzyme, IDO, in a murine model. A whole limb warm ischemia-reperfusion model was developed using IDO sufficient (WT) and deficient (KO) mice with C57/BL6 background. Twenty-four hours after injury, 5×105 cells (5×105 cells/200 µL of PBS solution) BMDSCs (Sca1 + cells) were injected intramuscularly while the control group received just the vehicle buffer (PBS). Forty-eight to seventy-two hours after limb BMDSC injection, recovery status including the ratio of intrinsic paw function between affected and normal paws, general mobility, and inflammatory responses were measured using video micrometery, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry techniques. Additionally, MRI/MRA studies were performed to further study the inflammatory response between groups and to confirm reconstitution of blood flow after ischemia. For the first time, our data, showed that IDO may potentially represent a partial role in triggering the beneficial effects of BMDSCs in faster recovery and protection against structural changes and cellular damage in a hind limb IR injury setting (P = 0.00058).
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95720. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095720 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "For example, in vivo AhR modulation disrupts HSC growth, senescence, and migration [95, 101–103, 106, 107]. Of note is that most of these studies used environmental AhR ligands as probes to establish the nominal function of the AhR in HSCs [101, 102, 104, 106, 107]. Furthermore, AhR−/− mice exhibit an increased number of bone marrow HSCs [95] and pro/pre-B cells [8]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor historically studied for its role in environmental chemical-mediated toxicity and carcinogenicity. In the last 5 years, however, it has become clear that the AhR, presumably activated by endogenous ligand(s), plays an important role in immune system development and function. Other articles in this edition summarize AhR function during T cell and antigen-presenting cell development and function, including the effects of AhR activation on dendritic cell function, T cell skewing, inflammation, and autoimmune disease. Here, we focus on AhR expression and function during B cell differentiation. Studies exploiting immunosuppressive environmental chemicals to probe the role of the AhR in humoral immunity are also reviewed to illustrate the multiple levels at which a "nominally activated" AhR could control B cell differentiation from the hematopoietic stem cell through the pro-B cell, mature B cell, and antibody-secreting plasma cell stages. Finally, a putative role for the AhR in the basic biology of B cell malignancies, many of which have been associated with exposure to environmental AhR ligands, is discussed.
    Seminars in Immunopathology 08/2013; 35(6). DOI:10.1007/s00281-013-0390-8 · 7.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor present in many cells. The AhR links environmental chemical stimuli with adaptive responses, such as detoxification, cellular homoeostasis or immune responses. Furthermore, novel roles of AhR in physiological and genetic functions are being discovered. This is a report of a recent meeting in Düsseldorf. The meeting highlighted that AhR research has moved from its focus on toxic effects of dioxins and other environmental pollutants to its biological roles. For instance, it was recently discovered that AhR-responsive elements in retrotransposons contribute to the functional structure of the genome. Other exciting new reports concerned the way plant-derived compounds in our diet are necessary for a fully functioning immune system of the gut. Also, human brain tumours use the AhR system to gain growth advantages. Other aspects covered were neurotoxicology, the circadian rhythm, or the breadth of the adaptive and innate immune system (hematopoietic stem cells, dendritic cells, T cells, mast cells). Finally, the meeting dealt with the discovery of new xenobiotic and natural ligands and their use in translational medicine, or cancer biology and AhR.
    Archives of Toxicology 02/2012; 86(8):1323-9. DOI:10.1007/s00204-012-0818-2 · 5.98 Impact Factor
Show more