Ongoing Challenge of Stage II Colon Cancer
University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 17.88). 07/2011; 29(25):3346-8. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2011.35.4571
- Journal of Clinical Oncology 08/2012; 30(27):3325-7. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2012.44.1949 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: According to current recommendations for adjuvant treatment, patients with colon cancer stage II are not routinely offered chemotherapy, unless considered to have a high risk of relapse based on specific clinicopathological parameters. Following these criteria, it is challenging to identify the subgroup of patients that will benefit the most from adjuvant treatment. Contrarily, patients with colon cancer stage III are routinely offered chemotherapy, but due to expected adverse effects and frailty, elderly patients are often excluded from standard protocols. Colon cancer is a disease of the elderly and accordingly, there is a large subgroup of patients for which guidelines for adjuvant treatment remain less clear. In these two clinical settings, improved risk stratification has great potential impact on patient care, anticipating that high risk patients will benefit from chemotherapy. However, microsatellite instability is the only molecular prognostic marker recommended for clinical use. In this perspective, we provide an updated view on the status and clinical potential of the many proposed prognostic gene expression-based tests for colon cancer stage II and III. The main limitation for clinical implementation is lack of prospective validation. For patients with stage II, highly promising tests have been identified and clinical trials are ongoing. For elderly patients with stage III, the value of such tests has received less focus, but promising early results have been shown. Although awaiting results from prospective trials, improved risk assessment for patients with stage II and III is likely to be achieved in the foreseeable future.Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; 19(24). DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1769 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tumor staging of colorectal cancer is typically based on conventional TNM and Dukes classifications. However, additional information could be useful, and there is a significant interest in identifying molecular markers that are related to genetic or epigenetic processes. Using immunohistochemistry, we analyzed the expression of the high-mobility group A2 (previously high-mobility group 1-C [HMGI-C]) protein in 103 colorectal cancer cases to determine its use as a biomarker in colorectal cancer to integrate morphological staging. We found a progressive increase of the high-mobility group A2 protein expression in colorectal cancer tumor samples from cases in which all of the tumor cells were negative up to cases in which all of the tumor cells stained positive. Increased high-mobility group A2 expression is strongly associated with an increase in tumor invasiveness, which was measured through both budding and vascular invasion (P < .0001). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed a decrease in overall survival when vascular invasion is present (P = .023). Moreover, a fraction of the analyzed samples showed high-mobility group A2-positive stromal fibroblasts. Although high-mobility group A2-positive tumors were associated with cell invasiveness, high-mobility group A2-positive stromal fibroblasts were correlated with less invasive tumors. High-mobility group A2 protein expression could be used as a prognostic marker to provide prospective information on patient outcome, complementing the data obtained using conventional pathologic staging systems.Human pathology 08/2012; 44(1). DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2012.05.001 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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