Cadmium and exposure to stress increase aggressive behavior.
ABSTRACT Environmental toxicants and stress influence the health and behavior of people from different parts of the world. In the present study, aggressive behavior was evaluated in rats exposed to cadmium (Cd) for four weeks and subjected to immobilization stress (IS) based on the resident/intruder paradigm. Latency to the first bite (LB), total number of attacks (NA), total duration of attack manifestations (DAM), and a composite aggression score (CAS) were used to assess aggressiveness. Cadmium concentrations in the blood and the brain were determined. We observed that the parameters of aggressiveness were not altered by either Cd or IS when administered separately. However, animals exposed to Cd+IS had increased NA, DAM, and CAS. Cadmium was detected in the blood and the brain after treatment and Cd+IS exposure modified Cd distribution in these tissues. These results suggest that exposure to low levels of Cd associated with stress may lead to increased aggressiveness in rats.
SourceAvailable from: Byung Kook Lee[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible effects of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on of bone mineral density (BMD) levels. Methods: A total of 171 residents around abandoned mines in Chungcheongnam-do were surveyed in 2008-2011. Urinary Cd and BMD were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and Dual-Energy X-ray absorptionmetry, respectively. Osteoporosis and osteopenia were defined by T-scores set by the WHO; Tscore -1.0, normal; -1.0 > T-score > -2.5, osteopenia; and T-score -2.5, osteoporosis. Logistic and multiple linear regressions were applied to estimate the association between U-Cd levels and BMD. Results: The U-Cd geometric mean of 171 Koreans was 2.79 . The U-Cd concentration was significantly higher among women (2.98 ) than men (2.39 ). With the multiple regression model, the BMD was influenced by U-Cd, BMI, and monthly income. With the logistic regression model, osteoporosis was associated with U-Cd levels (OR = 3.239, 95% CI = 1.770-5.927). Conclusions: We conclude that exposure to cadmium is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis.08/2012; 38(4). DOI:10.5668/JEHS.2012.38.4.323
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ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on the impairment of memory and anxiogenic - like behavior induced by cadmium (Cd) exposure. We also investigated possible alterations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and δ - aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) activities as well as in oxidative stress parameters in the CNS. Rats were exposed to Cd (2.5mg/Kg) and quercetin (5, 25 or 50mg/Kg) by gavage for 45days. Animals were divided into eight groups (n=10-14): saline/control, saline/Querc 5mg/kg, saline/Querc 25mg/kg, saline/Querc 50mg/kg, Cd/ethanol, Cd/Querc 5mg/kg, Cd/Querc 25mg/kg and Cd/Querc 50mg/kg. Results demonstrated that Cd impaired memory and has anxiogenic effect.Quercetin prevented these harmful effects induced by Cd. AChE activity decreased in cerebral cortex and hippocampus and increased in hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. The Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity decreased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevented these effects in AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. Reactive oxygen species production, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels, protein carbonyl content and double - stranded DNA fractions increased in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of Cd-exposed rats. Quercetin prevents totally or partially these effects caused by Cd. Total thiols (T-SH), reduced glutathione (GSH), reductase glutathione (GR) activities decreased and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity increased Cd exposure rats. Co-treatment with quercetin prevented reduction in T-SH, GSH, GR activities and the rise of GST activity. The present findings show that quercetin prevents alterations in oxidative stress parameters as well as AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, consequently preventing memory impairment and anxiogenic-like behavior displayed by Cd exposure. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the neuroprotective role of quercetin, emphasizing the influence of this flavonoid in the diet for human health, possibly preventing brain injury associated with Cd intoxication.Physiology & Behavior 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.06.008 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animals housed in a cage with clustered environmental enrichments may deal with higher aggression when they have to compete for depleting resources. In this study, the effects of the way environmental enrichments distributed between individuals were investigated. Sixteen adult male mice (Mus musculus) were housed in four different treatments with manipulation in terms of food choices availability and distribution of resources. Each male was observed for their aggressive and stereotypic behaviours for seven minutes twice a day for five days. The faeces were also collected after each treatment for measuring the corticosterone level in order to indicate the stress level of the mice. The results showed reduced aggression (p<0.05), stereotypic behaviour (p<0.05) and corticosterone level (p<0.05) in both dispersed environment and food available environment compared to the clustered environment as well as in the environment where the food choices were not available. From the results, it can be suggested that resources are better arranged in a dispersed way, so that the resources are easier to be shared. Thus, with lesser aggression and stereotypic behaviour, the welfare of the laboratory mice can be improved and easily managed.