In vitro effect of the antimalarial drug proguanil hydrochloride on viability and DNA damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Mutagenesis Unit, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.Environmental toxicology and pharmacology 11/2010; 30(3):257-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2010.07.001
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of proguanil, a chemical substance used for treatment and prevention of malaria on viability and DNA integrity in human lymphocytes in vitro. Two different concentrations of proguanil obtained from the plasma concentrations were used: 130ng/ml used for prophylactic treatment and 520ng/ml used in treatment of malaria. Testing was done with and without metabolic activation. Viability of lymphocytes decreased in time and dose dependent manner. Comet assay parameters showed similar effects, indicating that some damage to DNA molecule can occur. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges did not show significant deviation from the control samples. As for the proliferation kinetics no significant changes were noticed. Since majority of DNA damaging effect is induced after metabolic activation it is to be concluded that activity of proguanil is dependent upon the active metabolite cycloguanil and that monitoring should be conducted especially among frequent travellers.
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ABSTRACT: Atovaquone, a hydroxynaphthoquinone, is an anti-parasite drug, selectively targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of malaria parasite. It is used for both the treatment and prevention of malaria, usually in a fixed combination with proguanil. Although atovaquone has not often been associated with severe adverse reactions in the recommended dosages and has a relatively favorable side effect profile, the present study was undertaken to evaluate its cytogenotoxic potential towards human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Two different concentrations of atovaquone found in plasma when used in fixed-dose combination with proguanile hydrochloride were used with and without S9 metabolic activation: 2950 ng ml(-1) used for prophylactic treatment and 11 800 ng ml(-1) used in treatment of malaria. The results showed that lymphocyte viability was not affected after the treatment, suggesting that atovaquone was not cytotoxic in the given concentrations. With the alkaline comet assay we demonstrated that in human peripheral blood lymphocytes no significant changes in comet parameters occurred after the treatment. There were no differences in tested parameters with the addition of S9 metabolic activation, indicating that atovaquone either has no metabolite or it is not toxic in the given concentrations. Since no effects were observed after the treatment, it is to be concluded that atovaquone is safe from the aspect of genototoxicity in the recommended dosages. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2013; 33(1). DOI:10.1002/jat.1711 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atovaquone (ATO) and proguanil hydrochloride (PROG) is the fixed combination for the prevention and treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Since safe and effective antimalarial drugs are needed in both the treatment and prophylaxis of malaria, the present study was performed to investigate their possible cyto/genotoxic potential towards human lymphocytes and the possible mechanism responsible for it. Two different concentrations of ATO and PROG were used with and without S9 metabolic activation. The concentrations used were those found in human plasma when a fixed-dose combination of ATO and PROG was used: 2950/130 ng/ml after prophylactic treatment and 11800/520 ng/ml after treatment of malaria, respectively. Possible cellular and DNA damaging effects were evaluated by cell viability and alkaline comet assays, while oxidative stress potential was evaluated by formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay, in addition to measuring malondialdehyde and glutathione levels. According to our results, the ATO/PROG combination displayed only weak cyto/genotoxic potential towards human lymphocytes with no impact on oxidative stress parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is not implicated in their mechanism of action towards human lymphocytes. Given that the key portion of the damaging effects was induced after S9 metabolic activation, it is to presume that the principal metabolite of PROG, cycloguanil had the greatest impact. The obtained results indicate that the ATO/PROG combination is relatively safe for consumption from the aspect of cyto/genotoxicity, especially if used as prophylactic treatment. Nevertheless, further cytogenetic research and regular patient monitoring are needed to minimize the risk of adverse events especially among frequent travellers.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 09/2015; DOI:10.1111/fcp.12153 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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