This review focuses on the mechanisms by which PTH stimulates both osteoblast and osteoclast function, emphasizing the critical role that IGF-I plays in these processes. After reviewing the current literature on the skeletal actions of PTH and the modulation of IGF action on bone by the different IGF-binding proteins, the review then examines studies from mouse models in which IGF-I or its receptor have been selectively deleted in different cells of the skeletal system, in particular osteoprogenitors, mature osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. Mice in which IGF-I production has been deleted from all cells are deficient in both bone formation and bone resorption with few osteoblasts or osteoclasts in bone in vivo, reduced osteoblast colony forming units, and an inability of either the osteoblasts or osteoclast precursors to support osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Mice in which the IGF-I receptor is specifically deleted in mature osteoblasts have a mineralization defect in vivo, and bone marrow stromal cells from these mice fail to mineralize in vitro. Mice in which the IGF-I receptor is deleted in osteoprogenitor cells have a marked reduction in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation leading to osteopenia. Finally mice lacking the IGF-I receptor in their osteoclasts have increased bone and decreased osteoclast formation. PTH fails to stimulate bone formation in the mice lacking IGF-I or its receptor in osteoblasts or enhance the signaling between osteoblasts and osteoclasts through RANKL/RANK and Ephrin B2/Eph B4, emphasizing the role IGF-I signaling plays in cell-communication per se and as stimulated by PTH.
"The effects of the insulin-like growth factor system on skeletal development and maintenance has already been subjected to intensive studies , . Insulin-like growth factor inhibitors, like the here identified Igfbp5b have been implicated in either maintaining osteoblasts in an immature status, or promoting osteoclastogenesis and subsequent bone resorption . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone and cartilage. In this study, we analyzed the extracellular protein composition of the zebrafish skeleton using a mass spectrometry-based approach, resulting in the identification of 262 extracellular proteins, including most of the bone and cartilage specific proteins previously reported in mammalian species. By comparing these extracellular proteins at larval, juvenile, and adult developmental stages, 123 proteins were found that differed significantly in abundance during development. Proteins with a reported function in bone formation increased in abundance during zebrafish development, while analysis of the cartilage matrix revealed major compositional changes during development. The protein list includes ligands and inhibitors of various signaling pathways implicated in skeletogenesis such as the Int/Wingless as well as the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways. This first proteomic analysis of zebrafish skeletal development reveals that the zebrafish skeleton is comparable with the skeleton of other vertebrate species including mammals. In addition, our study reveals 6 novel proteins that have never been related to vertebrate skeletogenesis and shows a surprisingly large number of differences in the cartilage and bone proteome between the head, axis and caudal fin regions. Our study provides the first systematic assessment of bone and cartilage protein composition in an entire vertebrate at different stages of development.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90568. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090568 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Our motivation to investigate the role of osteocyte-derived IGF-I in the osteocyte regulation of bone remodeling was based on the facts that IGF-I is a critical mediator of the skeletal response to PTH in bone cells and that the PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in the osteocyte regulation of periosteal bone formation and intracortical remodeling.[71,72] Accordingly, we have recently performed a preliminary study to assess the effects of targeted disruption of Igf1 in osteocytes on the bone and mineral homeostasis in response to the dietary calcium challenge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The osteocyte has long been considered to be the primary mechanosensory cell in the bone. Recent evidence has emerged that the osteocyte is also a key regulator of various bone and mineral metabolism and that its regulatory effects are in part mediated through locally produced osteocyte-derived factors, such as sclerostin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23. Osteocytes secrete large amounts of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I in bone. Although IGF-I produced locally by other bone cells, such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes, has been shown to play important regulatory roles in bone turnover and developmental bone growth, the functional role of osteocyte-derived IGF-I in the bone and mineral metabolism has not been investigated and remains unclear. However, results of recent studies in osteocyte Igf1 conditional knockout transgenic mice have suggested potential regulatory roles of osteocyte-derived IGF-I in various aspects of bone and mineral metabolism. In this review, evidence supporting a regulatory role for osteocyte-derived IGF-I in the osteogenic response to mechanical loading, the developmental bone growth, the bone response to dietary calcium depletion and repletion, and in fracture repair is discussed. A potential coordinated regulatory relationship between the effect of osteocyte-derived IGF-I on bone size and the internal organ size is also proposed.
"This allows for the maintenance of both bone structure and mass, both of which were downregulated in mice with knockout of IGF-1 receptors in pre-osteoblastic cells . Similarly, mice with deleted IGF-1 receptors in osteoclasts exhibit increased bone formation from decreased osteoclast formation . Interestingly, IGF binding protein 3 is also a corequisite for IGF-1 in the bone matrix to stimulate new bone formation in rats . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells, functioning as precursors to a variety of cell types including adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes. Between osteogenic and adipogenic lineage commitment and differentiation, a theoretical inverse relationship exists, such that differentiation towards an osteoblast phenotype occurs at the expense of an adipocytic phenotype. This balance is regulated by numerous, intersecting signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of two main transcription factors: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- γ (PPAR γ ) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). These two transcription factors, PPAR γ and Runx2, are generally regarded as the master regulators of adipogenesis and osteogenesis. This review will summarize signaling pathways that govern MSC fate towards osteogenic or adipocytic differentiation. A number of signaling pathways follow the inverse balance between osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation and are generally proosteogenic/antiadipogenic stimuli. These include β -catenin dependent Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling, and NELL-1 signaling. However, other signaling pathways exhibit more context-dependent effects on adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. These include bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling and insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling, which display both proosteogenic and proadipogenic effects. In summary, understanding those factors that govern osteogenic versus adipogenic MSC differentiation has significant implications in diverse areas of human health, from obesity to osteoporosis to regenerative medicine.
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