Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers host type I IFN signaling to regulate IL-1β production in human macrophages.
ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a virulent intracellular pathogen that survives in macrophages even in the presence of an intact adaptive immune response. Type I IFNs have been shown to exacerbate tuberculosis in mice and to be associated with disease progression in infected humans. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which type I IFNs regulate the host response to M. tuberculosis infection are poorly understood. In this study, we show that M. tuberculosis induces an IFN-related gene expression signature in infected primary human macrophages, which is dependent on host type I IFN signaling as well as the mycobacterial virulence factor, region of difference-1. We further demonstrate that type I IFNs selectively limit the production of IL-1β, a critical mediator of immunity to M. tuberculosis. This regulation occurs at the level of IL1B mRNA expression, rather than caspase-1 activation or autocrine IL-1 amplification and appears to be preferentially used by virulent mycobacteria since avirulent M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) fails to trigger significant expression of type I IFNs or release of mature IL-1β protein. The latter property is associated with decreased caspase-1-dependent IL-1β maturation in the BCG-infected macrophages. Interestingly, human monocytes in contrast to macrophages produce comparable levels of IL-1β in response to either M. tuberculosis or BCG. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that virulent and avirulent mycobacteria employ distinct pathways for regulating IL-1β production in human macrophages and reveal that in the case of M. tuberculosis infection the induction of type I IFNs is a major mechanism used for this purpose.
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ABSTRACT: Neuro-inflammation has long been implicated as a contributor to the progression of Alzheimer's disease in both humans and animal models. Type-1 interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines critical in mediating the innate immune pro-inflammatory response. The production of type-1 IFNs following pathogen detection is, in part, through the activation of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and subsequent signalling through myeloid differentiation factor-88 (Myd88) and interferon regulatory factors (IRFs). We have previously identified that neuronal type-1 IFN signalling, through the type-1 interferon alpha receptor-1 (IFNAR1), is detrimental in models of AD. Using an in vitro approach, this study investigated the TLR network as a potential production pathway for neuronal type-1 IFNs in response to Aβ. Wildtype and Myd88(-/-) primary cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons were treated with 2.5 μM Aβ1-42 for 24 to 72 h or 1 to 10 μM Aβ1-42 for 72 h. Human BE(2)M17 neuroblastoma cells stably expressing an IRF7 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) or negative control shRNA construct were subjected to 7.5 μM Aβ1-42/Aβ42-1 for 24 to 96 h, 2.5 to 15 μM Aβ1-42 for 96 h or 100 ng/ml LPS for 0.5 to 24 h. Q-PCR was used to analyse IFNα, IFNβ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα mRNA transcript levels. Phosphorylation of STAT-3 was detected by Western blot analysis, and cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. Reduced IFNα, IFNβ, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expression was detected in Aβ1-42-treated Myd88(-/-) neurons compared to wildtype cells. This correlated with reduced phosphorylation of STAT-3, a downstream type-1 IFN signalling mediator. Significantly, Myd88(-/-) neuronal cultures were protected against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity compared to wildtype as determined by MTS assay. Knockdown of IRF7 in M17 cells was sufficient in blocking IFNα, IFNβ and p-STAT-3 induction to both Aβ1-42 and the TLR4 agonist LPS. M17 IRF7 KD cells were also protected against Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity. This study confirms that the neuronal type-1 IFN response to soluble amyloid is mediated primarily through TLRs. This production is dependent upon Myd88 and IRF7 signalling. This study suggests that targeting this pathway to modulate neuronal type-1 IFN levels may be beneficial in controlling Aβ-induced neurotoxicity.Journal of Neuroinflammation 04/2015; 12(1):71. DOI:10.1186/s12974-015-0263-2 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type I IFNs are known to inhibit viral replication and mediate protection against viral infection. However, recent studies revealed that these cytokines play a broader and more fundamental role in host responses to infections beyond their well-established antiviral function. Type I IFN induction, often associated with microbial evasion mechanisms unique to virulent microorganisms, is now shown to increase host susceptibility to a diverse range of pathogens, including some viruses. This article presents an overview of the role of type I IFNs in infections with bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens and discusses the key mechanisms mediating the regulatory function of type I IFNs in pathogen clearance and tissue inflammation. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Lipid mediators play an important role in infection- and tissue injury-driven inflammatory responses and in the subsequent inhibition and resolution of the response. Here, we discuss recent findings that substantiate how Mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes its survival in the host by dysregulation of lipid mediator balance. By inhibiting prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and enhancing lipoxin production, M. tuberculosis induces necrotic death of the macrophage, an environment that favors its growth. These new findings provide opportunities for developing and repurposing therapeutics to modulate lipid mediator balance and enhance M. tuberculosis growth restriction.03/2015; 7:29. DOI:10.12703/P7-29