Download full-text


Available from: Sue Duval, Jul 20, 2015
24 Reads
  • Source
    • "Sensitivity analysis was performed by assessing the contribution of individual studies to the summary effect estimate by excluding each study, one at a time, and computing meta-analysis estimates for the remaining studies . With only eight studies the power of testing for publication bias might be too low to distinguish chance from real asymmetry (Sterne et al., 2011), therefore funnel plot and Egger's regression analysis were omitted. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Birth weight is extensively investigated as an outcome of interacting with greenery in mothers’ living environment, because it is one of the major causes for neonatal and infant mortality, as well as a correlate of some adverse effects in childhood and beyond. Conversely, in modern urban-ecological systems the access to greenery is limited. The aim of this study was to answer the question whether green spaces and generally greenery in the living environment of pregnant women are associated with the birth weight of their infants and what the direction of that effect is. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Internet were searched for relevant publications in English and Spanish. Eight studies were identified and included in the analyses (total n = 214 940). We report quality effects meta-analyses based on correlation and standardized regression coefficients as estimates of effect size. Neighbourhood greenness within 100-m buffer was weakly but positively associated with birth weight. The pooled correlation coefficient was 0.049 (95% CI: 0.039, 0.059) and the pooled standardized regression coefficient was 0.001 (95% CI: -0.001, 0.003). There was, however, considerable heterogeneity between the studies. Using more sensitive measures for greenness and taking into account green space functionality and quality, adjusting for environmental exposures, and assessing individual attitudes towards nature, might yield clearer picture, higher statistical power and more precise results in future research. Our findings endorse the emphasis put on urban forestry and landscape management as closely related to public health and propose a more naturalistic, humanitarian and person-centered approach in future studies.
    Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 09/2014; 13(4):621-629. DOI:10.1016/j.ufug.2014.09.004 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "There are a number of plausible explanations for the results of the sensitivity analysis in the present meta-analysis. First, studies that include patients diagnosed before 2004 were published earlier introducing a potential time lag bias in the interpretation of the data [28]. Alternatively, adjuvant chemotherapy was established after 2004 for patients after resection in the case of stage II, III, or IB with adverse prognostic factors [29]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives MET is a receptor present in the membrane of NSCLC cells and is known to promote cell proliferation, survival and migration. MET gene copy number is a common genetic alteration and inhibition o MET emerges as a promising targeted therapy in NSCLC. Here we aim to combine in a meta-analysis, data on the effect of high MET gene copy number on the overall survival of patients with resected NSCLC. Methods Two independent investigators applied parallel search strategies with the terms “MET AND lung cancer”, “MET AND NSCLC”, “MET gene copy number AND prognosis” in PubMed through January 2014. We selected the studies that investigated the association of MET gene copy number with survival, in patients who received surgery. Results Among 1096 titles that were identified in the initial search, we retrieved 9 studies on retrospective cohorts with adequate retrievable data regarding the prognostic impact of MET gene copy number on the survival of patients with NSCLC. Out of those, 6 used FISH and the remaining 3 used RT PCR to assess the MET gene copy number in the primary tumor. We calculated the I2 statistic to assess heterogeneity (I2 = 72%). MET gene copy number predicted worse overall survival when all studies were combined in a random effects model (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22–2.60). When only the studies that had at least 50% of adenocarcinoma patients in their populations were included, the effect was significant (five studies, HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.23–1.94). This was not true when we included only the studies with no more than 50% of the patients having adenocarcinoma histology (four studies HR 2.18, 95% CI 0.97–4.90). Conclusions Higher MET gene copy number in the primary tumor at the time of diagnosis predicts worse outcome in patients with NSCLC. This prognostic impact may be adenocarcinoma histology specific.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107677. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107677 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "We will investigate small study effects by the performance of cumulative meta-analysis (studies ordered and synthesized from the most to the least precise) and/or other graphical or statistical techniques if the following criteria are met: there are at least 10 studies available, studies are of unequal sizes, there are no substantial clinical and methodological differences between smaller and larger studies, and quantitative results are accompanied with measures of dispersion [59-62]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundCardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose or glucose intolerance, high lipid levels, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, and overweight/obesity. The occurrence of intermediate outcomes during childhood increases the risk of disease in adulthood. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are.Methods/DesignOf interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case–control studies, and nested case–control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to determine the quality of evidence for outcomes.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42014009641.
    Systematic Reviews 09/2014; 3(1):96. DOI:10.1186/2046-4053-3-96
Show more