The role of cell surface markers and enamel matrix derivatives on human periodontal ligament mesenchymal progenitor responses in vitro
ABSTRACT Periodontitis is a chronic-, infectious-disease of the human periodontium that is characterized by the loss of supporting tissues surrounding the tooth such as the periodontal ligament (PDL), cementum and alveolar bone. Regeneration of the periodontium is dependent on the participation of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) resident in the PDL. Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), an extract from immature porcine enamel rich in amelogenin protein but that also contain bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), is used to treat periodontal defects. The effects of EMD on MSC cells of the PDL are not well characterized. In this in vitro study, we identify PDL progenitor cells from multiple individuals and demonstrate that EMD stimulates them. We show that the effect of EMD on cell proliferation and migration is mediated through the amelogenin it contains, while the differentiation of these progenitor cells to cell types of mineralized tissue is mainly due to BMP signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Our study seeks to explore anabolic effects of a periodontal regenerative agent enamel matrix derivative (EMD). Its modulation by nicotine and the anti-oxidant glutathione (GSH) are investigated in human periosteal fibroblasts (HPF) and MG63 osteoblasts. Androgen biomarkers of oxidative stress and healing, resulting from radiolabeled androgen substrates are assayed. This in vitro model simulates a redox environment relevant to the periodontal lesion. It aims to confirm the hypothesis that EMD is an effective regenerative agent in a typically redox environment of the periodontal lesion. Monolayer cultures of MG63 osteoblasts and HPF established in culture medium are incubated with androgen substrates, and optimal concentrations of EMD, nicotine and GSH, alone and in combination. EMD significantly enhances yields of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) an effective bioactive metabolite, alone and in combination with GSH, to overcome oxidative effects of nicotine across cultures. The 'in vitro' findings of this study could be extrapolated to "in vivo" applications of EMD as an adjunctive regenerative therapeutic agent in an environment of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Increased yields of DHT implicated in matrix synthesis and direct antioxidant capacity, confirm the potential applications for enamel matrix derivative in periodontal regenerative procedures.12/2012; 3(1):143-162. DOI:10.3390/jfb3010143
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their precursor cells (MPCs) can proliferate and differentiate into multiple mesodermal and some ectodermal and endodermal tissues. Culture-expanded MSCs are currently being evaluated as a possible cell therapy to replace/repair injured or diseased tissues. While a number of mAb reagents with specificity to human MSCs, including STRO-1, STRO-3 (BLK ALP), CD71 (SH2, SH3), CD106 (VCAM-1), CD166, and CD271, have facilitated the isolation of purified populations of human MSCs from primary tissues, few if any mAb reagents have been described that can be used to isolate equivalent cells from other species. This is of particular relevance when assessing the tissue regenerative efficacy of MSCs in large immunocompetent, preclinical animal models of disease. In light of this, we sought to generate novel monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with specific reactivity against a cell surface molecule that is expressed at high levels by MSCs from different species. Using CD106 (VCAM-1)-selected ovine MSCs as an immunogen, mAb-producing hybridomas were selected for their reactivity to both human and ovine MSCs. One such hybridoma, termed STRO-4, produced an IgG mAb that reacted with <5% of human and ovine bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells. As a single selection reagent, STRO-4 mAb was able to enrich colony-forming fibroblasts (CFU-F) in both human and ovine BM by 16- and 8-folds, respectively. Cells isolated with STRO-4 exhibited reactivity with markers commonly associated with MSCs isolated by plastic adherence including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Moreover, when placed in inductive culture conditions in vitro, STRO-4(+) MSCs exhibited multilineage differentiation potential and were capable of forming a mineralized matrix, lipid-filled adipocytes, and chondrocytes capable of forming a glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix. Biochemical analysis revealed that STRO-4 identified the beta isoform of heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90beta). In addition to identifying an antibody reagent that identifies a highly conserved epitope expressed by MSCs from different species, our study also points to a potential role for Hsp90beta in MSC biology.Stem cells and development 02/2009; 18(9):1253-62. DOI:10.1089/scd.2008.0400 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), a porcine extract harvested from developing porcine teeth, has been shown to promote formation of new cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Despite its widespread use, an incredibly large variability among in vitro studies has been observed. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of EMD on cells at different maturation stages of osteoblast differentiation by testing 6 cell types to determine if cell phenotype plays a role in cell behaviour following treatment with EMD. Six cell types including MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts, rat calvarial osteoblasts, human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, ROS cells, MG63 cells and human alveolar osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of EMD and proliferation rates were quantified by an MTS assay. Gene expression of collagen1(COL1), alkaline phosphate(ALP) and osteocalcin(OC) were investigated by real-time PCR. While EMD significantly increased cell proliferation of all cell types, its effect on osteoblast differentiation was more variable. EMD significantly up-regulated gene expression of COL1, ALP and OC in cells early in their differentiation process when compared to osteoblasts at later stages of maturation. Furthermore, the effect of cell passaging of primary human PDL cells (passage 2 to 15) was tested in response to treatment with EMD. EMD significantly increased cell proliferation and differentiation of cells at passages 2-5 however had completely lost their ability to respond to EMD by passages 10+. The results from the present study suggest that cell stimulation with EMD has a more pronounced effect on cells earlier in their differentiation process and may partially explain why treatment with EMD primarily favors regeneration of periodontal defects (where the periodontal ligament contains a higher number of undifferentiated progenitor cells) over regeneration of pure alveolar bone defects containing no periodontal ligament and a more limited number of osteoprogenitor cells.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71008. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071008 · 3.53 Impact Factor