Cardiac Disease in Methylmalonic Acidemia
ABSTRACT Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a heterogeneous disorder, with onset from infancy to adulthood and varying degrees of organ involvement and severity. Cardiac disease is a known lethal complication of other organic acidemias, but has not been associated with MMA. We identified 3 patients with MMA and cardiac disease.
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ABSTRACT: Methylmalonic and propionic acidemia (MMA/PA) are inborn errors of metabolism characterized by accumulation of propionic acid and/or methylmalonic acid due to deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MUT) or propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC). MMA has an estimated incidence of¿~¿1: 50,000 and PA of¿~¿1:100¿000 -150,000. Patients present either shortly after birth with acute deterioration, metabolic acidosis and hyperammonemia or later at any age with a more heterogeneous clinical picture, leading to early death or to severe neurological handicap in many survivors. Mental outcome tends to be worse in PA and late complications include chronic kidney disease almost exclusively in MMA and cardiomyopathy mainly in PA. Except for vitamin B12 responsive forms of MMA the outcome remains poor despite the existence of apparently effective therapy with a low protein diet and carnitine. This may be related to under recognition and delayed diagnosis due to nonspecific clinical presentation and insufficient awareness of health care professionals because of disease rarity.These guidelines aim to provide a trans-European consensus to guide practitioners, set standards of care and to help to raise awareness. To achieve these goals, the guidelines were developed using the SIGN methodology by having professionals on MMA/PA across twelve European countries and the U.S. gather all the existing evidence, score it according to the SIGN evidence level system and make a series of conclusive statements supported by an associated level of evidence. Although the degree of evidence rarely exceeds level C (evidence from non-analytical studies like case reports and series), the guideline should provide a firm and critical basis to guide practice on both acute and chronic presentations, and to address diagnosis, management, monitoring, outcomes, and psychosocial and ethical issues. Furthermore, these guidelines highlight gaps in knowledge that must be filled by future research. We consider that these guidelines will help to harmonize practice, set common standards and spread good practices, with a positive impact on the outcomes of MMA/PA patients.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 09/2014; 9(1):130. DOI:10.1186/s13023-014-0130-8 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inborn errors of metabolism are identified in 5%-26% of infants and children with cardiomyopathy. Although fatty acid oxidation disorders, lysosomal and glycogen storage disorders and organic acidurias are well-known to be associated with cardiomyopathies, emerging reports suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and congenital disorders of glycosylation may also account for a proportion of cardiomyopathies. This review article clarifies when primary care physicians and cardiologists should suspect inborn errors of metabolism in a patient with cardiomyopathy, and refer the patient to a metabolic specialist for a further metabolic work up, with specific discussions of "red flags" which should prompt additional evaluation.World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 11/2014; 6(11):1149-1155. DOI:10.4330/wjc.v6.i11.1149 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: End stage kidney disease is a well-known complication of methylmalonic acidemia (MMA), and can be treated by dialysis, kidney transplant, or combined kidney-liver transplant. While liver and/or kidney transplantation in MMA may reduce the risk of metabolic crisis and end-organ disease, it does not fully prevent disease-related complications. We performed detailed metabolite and kinetic analyses in a 28-year-old patient with mut (0) MMA who underwent hemodialysis for 6 months prior to receiving a combined liver/kidney transplant. A single hemodialysis session led to a 54 % reduction in plasma methylmalonic acid and yielded a plasma clearance of 103 ml/min and VD0.48 L/kg, which approximates the total body free water space. This was followed by rapid reaccumulation of methylmalonic acid over 24 h to the predialysis concentration in the plasma. Following combined liver/kidney transplantation, the plasma methylmalonic acid was reduced to 3 % of pre-dialysis levels (6,965 ± 1,638 (SD) μmol/L and 234 ± 100 (SD) μmol/L) but remained >850× higher than the upper limit of normal (0.27 ± 0.08 (SD) μmol/L). Despite substantial post-operative metabolic improvement, the patient developed significant neurologic complications including acute worsening of vision in the setting of pre-existing bilateral optic neuropathy, generalized seizures, and a transient, focal leukoencephalopathy. Plasma methylmalonic acid was stable throughout the post-operative course. The biochemical parameters exhibited by this patient further define the whole body metabolism of methylmalonic acid in the setting of dialysis and subsequent combined liver/kidney transplant.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 06/2014; 37(6). DOI:10.1007/s10545-014-9730-7 · 4.14 Impact Factor