Article

Arbuscular mycorrhizas enhance nutrient uptake in different wheat genotypes at high salinity levels under field and greenhouse conditions.

Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
Comptes rendus biologies (Impact Factor: 1.71). 07/2011; 334(7):564-71. DOI: 10.1016/j.crvi.2011.05.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since most experiments regarding the symbiosis between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their host plants under salinity stress have been performed only under greenhouse conditions, this research work was also conducted under field conditions. The effects of three AM species including Glomus mosseae, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices on the nutrient uptake of different wheat cultivars (including Roshan, Kavir and Tabasi) under field and greenhouse (including Chamran and Line 9) conditions were determined. At field harvest, the concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Mn, and at greenhouse harvest, plant growth, root colonization and concentrations of different nutrients including N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Na and Cl were determined. The effects of wheat cultivars on the concentrations of N, Ca, and Mn, and of all nutrients were significant at field and greenhouse conditions, respectively. In both experiments, AM fungi significantly enhanced the concentrations of all nutrients including N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Na and Cl. The synergistic and enhancing effects of co-inoculation of AM species on plant growth and the inhibiting effect of AM species on Na(+) rather than on Cl(-) uptake under salinity are also among the important findings of this research work.

1 Bookmark
 · 
95 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form widespread symbiotic associations with 80% of known land plants. They play a major role in plant nutrition, growth, water absorption, nutrient cycling and protection from pathogens, and as a result, contribute to ecosystem processes. Salinity stress conditions undoubtedly limit plant productivity and, therefore, the role of AMF as a biological tool for improving plant salt stress tolerance, is gaining economic importance worldwide. However, this approach requires a better understanding of how plants and AMF intimately interact with each other in saline environments and how this interaction leads to physiological changes in plants. This knowledge is important to develop sustainable strategies for successful utilization of AMF to improve plant health under a variety of stress conditions. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, "omics" technology and advanced microscopy can provide new insight about these mechanisms of interaction between AMF and plants, as well as other microbes. This review mainly discusses the effect of salinity on AMF and plants, and role of AMF in alleviation of salinity stress including insight on methods for AMF identification. The focus remains on latest advancements in mycorrhizal research that can potentially offer an integrative understanding of the role of AMF in salinity tolerance and sustainable crop production.
    Critical Reviews in Biotechnology 04/2014; · 7.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity restricts plant growth and productivity. Na(+) represents the major ion causing toxicity because it competes with K(+) for binding sites at the plasma membrane. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can alleviate salt stress in the host plant through several mechanisms. These may include ion selection during the fungal uptake of nutrients from the soil or during transfer to the host plant. AM benefits could be enhanced when native AMF isolates are used. Thus, we investigated whether native AMF isolated from an area with problems of salinity and desertification can help maize plants to overcome the negative effects of salinity stress better than non-AM plants or plants inoculated with non-native AMF. Results showed that plants inoculated with two out the three native AMF had the highest shoot dry biomass at all salinity levels. Plants inoculated with the three native AMF showed significant increase of K(+) and reduced Na(+) accumulation as compared to non-mycorrhizal plants, concomitantly with higher K(+) /Na(+) ratios in their tissues. For the first time, these effects have been correlated with regulation of ZmAKT2, ZmSOS1 and ZmSKOR genes expression in the roots of maize, contributing to K(+) and Na(+) homeostasis in plants colonized by native AMF.
    Plant Cell and Environment 02/2013; · 5.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae, and a phosphate-solubilizing microorganism (PSM), Mortierella sp., and their interactions, on nutrient (N, P and K) uptake and the ionic composition of different root tissues of the halophyte Kosteletzkya virginica (L.), cultured with or without NaCl, were evaluated. Plant biomass, AM colonization and PSM populations were also assessed. Salt stress adversely affected plant nutrient acquisition, especially root P and K, resulting in an important reduction in shoot dry biomass. Inoculation of the AM fungus or/and PSM strongly promoted AM colonization, PSM populations, plant dry biomass, root/shoot dry weight ratio and nutrient uptake by K. virginica, regardless of salinity level. Ion accumulation in root tissues was inhibited by salt stress. However, dual inoculation of the AM fungus and PSM significantly enhanced ion (e.g., Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+)) accumulation in different root tissues, and maintained lower Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratios and a higher Na(+)/Ca(2+) ratio, compared to non-inoculated plants under 100 mM NaCl conditions. Correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated that plant (shoot or root) dry biomass correlated positively with plant nutrient uptake and ion (e.g., Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Cl(-)) concentrations of different root tissues, and correlated negatively with Na(+)/K(+) ratios in the epidermis and cortex. Simultaneously, root/shoot dry weight ratio correlated positively with Na(+)/Ca(2+) ratios in most root tissues. These findings suggest that combined AM fungus and PSM inoculation alleviates the deleterious effects of salt on plant growth by enabling greater nutrient (e.g., P, N and K) absorption, higher accumulation of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Cl(-) in different root tissues, and maintenance of lower root Na(+)/K(+) and higher Na(+)/Ca(2+) ratios when salinity is within acceptable limits.
    Mycorrhiza 12/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor