Investigation of extracts from (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus as antimutagens and radical scavengers. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol

Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Rue Avicenne, Monastir 5000, Tunisia.
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.08). 11/2005; 20(3):478-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.etap.2005.05.012
Source: PubMed


This study evaluates mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous, total oligomers flavonoïds (TOF), ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus with the Salmonella typhimurium assay system. The different extracts showed no mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1538 either with or without the S9 mix. On the other hand, our results showed that all extracts have antimutagenic activity against Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in TA100 and TA98 assay system, and against sodium azide in TA100 and TA1535 assay system. TOF, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest inhibition level of the Ames response induced by the indirect mutagen AFB1. Whereas, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest level of protection towards the direct mutagen, sodium azide, induced response. In addition to antimutagenic activity, these extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. TOF, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed IC(50) value of 15, 14 and 20μg/ml, respectively. Taken together, our finding showed that C. rotundus exhibits significant antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

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    • "Dioscorides also highlights the use of C. rotundus tubers as an ingredient of ancient Egypt's best known perfume, kuphi or kyphi, an incense that also had medicinal properties and provides a preparation to perfume goose or pork fat made by mixing C. rotundus with other vegetable agents [49]. A wide range of medicinal uses have been recorded [22] [50] [51] [52] [53] [54] [55] and anti-microbial [56] [57], anti-malarial [58], anti-oxidant [59] [60] [61] [62] and anti-diabetic [63] compounds have been isolated and identified. Tubers are still used today in herbal medicine in the Middle East, Far East and India [48], for perfume and animal fodder [51] [64] and as incense in Burkina Faso [65]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the mouth. Here we present a suite of results from the multi-period Central Sudanese site of Al Khiday. We demonstrate the ingestion in both pre-agricultural and agricultural periods of Cyperus rotundus tubers. This plant is a good source of carbohydrates and has many useful medicinal and aromatic qualities, though today it is considered to be the world's most costly weed. Its ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans may have contributed to the unexpectedly low level of caries found in the agricultural population. Other evidence extracted from the dental calculus includes smoke inhalation, dry (roasting) and wet (heating in water) cooking, a second plant possibly from the Triticaceae tribe and plant fibres suggestive of raw material preparation through chewing.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e100808. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100808 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Different chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, starch, glycosides, furochromones, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sitosterol, essential oil, fatty oil containing a neutral waxy substance, glycerol, linolenic, myristic and stearic acids and many other compounds have been isolated from the plant [3,4]. Pharmacological properties such as anti-candida [5], anti-inflammatory [6], antidiabetic [7], antidiarrhoeal [8,9], cytoprotective [10], antimutagenic [11], antimicrobial, antioxidant [12], antibacterial, cytotoxic and apoptotic [13,14], analgesic [15], anticonvulsant [16], and wound healing [17] activities have been reported. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Cyperaceae) is used to treat inflammation, pain, fever, wounds, boils and blisters in folk medicine. This study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of the hydromethanol extract of whole plant of C. rotundus (HMCR). The antinociceptive activity of HMCR was investigated in thermal-induced (hot plate and tail immersion) and chemical-induced (formalin) nociception models in mice at three different doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.). Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as reference analgesic agents. In the hot-plate and tail-immersion tests HMCR significantly increased the latency period to the thermal stimuli at all the tested doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) (p < 0.05). The significant increase in latency is clear from the observations at 60 and 90 min. In formalin-induced paw licking test oral administration of HMCR at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses decreased the licking of paw in early phase. All the tested doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the licking of paw in late phase of the test (p < 0.001). The dose 200 mg/kg was most effective showing maximum percentage of inhibition of licking in both early (61.60%) and late phase (87.41%). These results indicate the antinociceptive effect of C. rotundus and suggest that this effect is mediated by both peripheral and central mechanisms. These results support the traditional use of this plant in different painful conditions.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2014; 14(1):83. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-14-83 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    • "Previous reports indicated that various flavonoids have an anti-inflammatory activity [48] suggesting that flavonoids should be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects obtained with the different C. rotundus tested extracts. In addition, we previously showed that ethyl acetate extract contains sterols [49], which are documented as anti-inflammatory constituents [50,51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Cyperaceae) is a Tunisian medicinal plant used in folkloric (traditional) medicine to treat stomach disorders and inflammatory diseases. The present study explored the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and genotoxic activities of extracts from the aerial parts of C. rotundus. The antioxidant capacity and the modulation of splenocyte functions by these extracts were also investigated in mice. The phytochemical analysis was carried out using standard methods. Methods Aqueous, ethyl acetate, methanol and TOF-enriched extracts (300, 150, and 50 μg/ml) were evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. 4, 2, and 1 mg/ml of each extract were tested to investigate their effect on lipid peroxidation. The genotoxic study was monitored by measuring the structural chromosome aberrations of mice treated with 300 mg/kg of extract. The proliferation of lymphocytes in the absence and presence of mitogens was assessed at a concentration range 1–1000 μg/ml. Results The tested extracts were able to decrease the mouse ear oedema induced by xylene. Furthermore, it was shown that the same extracts reduced the number of abdominal contractions caused by acetic acid in mice, revealing the peripheral analgesic activity of these extracts. It is worth noting that mice treated with doses up to 300 mg/kg b.w. of Cyperus rotundus extracts did not exhibit any toxicity. The tested extracts significantly enhance lymphocyte proliferation at 1 mg/ml. Conclusions It appears that C. rotundus extracts contain potent components such as flavonoids that may potentially be useful for modulating the immune cell functions, provoking analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2013; 13(1):28. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-28 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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