Cellular uptake mechanisms and responses to NO transferred from mono- and poly-S-nitrosated human serum albumin.
ABSTRACT Endogenous S-nitrosated human serum albumin (E-Mono-SNO-HSA) is a large molecular weight nitric oxide (NO) carrier in human plasma, which has shown many beneficial effects in different animal models. To construct more efficient SNO-HSA preparations, SNO-HSA with many conjugated SNO groups has been prepared using chemical modification (CM-Poly-SNO-HSA). We have compared the properties of such a preparation to those of E-Mono-SNO-HSA. Cellular uptake of NO from E-Mono-SNO-HSA partly takes place via low molecular weight thiol, and it results in cytoprotective effects by induction of heme oxygenase-1. By contrast, transfer of NO from CM-Poly-SNO-HSA into the cells is faster and more pronounced. The influx mainly takes place by cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase. The considerable NO inflow results in apoptotic cell death by ROS induction and caspase-3 activation. Thus, increasing the number of SNO groups on HSA does not simply intensify the cellular responses to the product but can also result in very different effects.