Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic

Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606, USA.
Nutrition research and practice (Impact Factor: 1.13). 06/2011; 5(3):253-9. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2011.5.3.253
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food type consumption and rising obesity using the loss-adjusted food availability data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Services (ERS) as well as the obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis showed that total calorie intake and consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) did not correlate with rising obesity trends. Intake of other major food types, including chicken, dairy fats, salad and cooking oils, and cheese also did not correlate with obesity trends. However, our results surprisingly revealed that consumption of corn products correlated with rising obesity and was independent of gender and race/ethnicity among population dynamics in the U.S. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate a novel link between the consumption of corn products and rising obesity trends that has not been previously attributed to the obesity epidemic. This correlation coincides with the introduction of bioengineered corns into the human food chain, thus raising a new hypothesis that should be tested in molecular and animal models of obesity.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endurance exercise is known to promote a substantial effect on the energy balance in rats and humans. However, little is known about the exact mechanisms for the appetite-suppressive effects of endurance exercise. We hypothesized that endurance training might activate signaling cascades in the hypothalamus known to be involved in leptin signaling. 16 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (n = 8) and exercise groups (n = 8). Animals in the exercise group started treadmill running at 30 m/min, 0% grade, for 1 min/bout. Running time was gradually increased by 2 min/bout every day. The training plan was one bout per day during initial two weeks, and two bouts per day during 3rd-9th week. At the end of nine-week experiment, blood was analyzed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid (FFA), interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin in both groups. Activations of janus kinase 2-signaling transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2-STAT3), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kninase (ERKs), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in hypothalamus were measured in the end of nine weeks of exercise protocol. Nine-week endurance exercise induced lower concentrations of LDL-C, TG, TC, FFA, and leptin in rats (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Nine-week endurance exercise significantly increased the circulating IL-6 concentration compared with sedentary group (239.6 ± 37.2 pg/ml vs. 151.8 ± 31.5 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Exercise rats showed significant increases in JAK2, STAT3, Akt, ERKs, and SOCS3 phosphorylations compared with sedentary rats (P < 0.01). The data suggest that endurance exercise is a leptin signaling mimetic in hypothalamus of Wistar rats.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 12/2011; 10:225. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-10-225 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Longitudinal studies investigating dietary patterns (DPs) and their association with childhood overweight/obesity are lacking in Europe. We identified DPs and investigated their association with overweight/obesity and changes in body mass index (BMI) in a cohort of European children.SUBJECTS/METHODS:Children aged 2-10 from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Food frequency questionnaires were collected from 14 989 children. BMI and BMI z-scores were derived from height and weight and were used to identify overweight/obese children. After 2 years (mean), anthropometric measurements were repeated in 9427 children. Principal component analysis was used to identify DPs. Simplified DPs (SDPs) were derived from DPs. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for overweight/obesity with increasing DP intake were estimated using multilevel logistic regression. Associations of BMI change with DP and SDP were assessed by multilevel mixed regression. Models were adjusted for baseline BMI, age, sex, physical activity and family income.RESULTS:Four DPs were identified that explained 25% of food intake variance: snacking, sweet and fat, vegetables and wholemeal, and protein and water. After 2 years, 849(9%) children became overweight/obese. Children in the highest vegetables and wholemeal tertile had lower risk of becoming overweight/obese (OR: 0.69, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.54-0.88). Children in the highest SDP tertile of vegetables and wholemeal had similarly lower risk of becoming overweight/obese (OR: 0.64, 95% CIs: 0.51-0.82), and their BMI increased by 0.7 kg/m(2) over the study period-significantly less than the increase in the lowest tertile (0.84 kg/m(2)).CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that promoting a diet rich in vegetables and wholemeal cereals may counteract overweight/obesity in children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.145.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 08/2013; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2013.145 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p < 0.001). Participants with low or moderate intake of fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 10/2013; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2013.836741 · 1.20 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Available from