Article

Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic

Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606, USA.
Nutrition research and practice (Impact Factor: 1.13). 06/2011; 5(3):253-9. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2011.5.3.253
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food type consumption and rising obesity using the loss-adjusted food availability data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Services (ERS) as well as the obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis showed that total calorie intake and consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) did not correlate with rising obesity trends. Intake of other major food types, including chicken, dairy fats, salad and cooking oils, and cheese also did not correlate with obesity trends. However, our results surprisingly revealed that consumption of corn products correlated with rising obesity and was independent of gender and race/ethnicity among population dynamics in the U.S. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate a novel link between the consumption of corn products and rising obesity trends that has not been previously attributed to the obesity epidemic. This correlation coincides with the introduction of bioengineered corns into the human food chain, thus raising a new hypothesis that should be tested in molecular and animal models of obesity.

2 Followers
 · 
209 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Longitudinal studies investigating dietary patterns (DPs) and their association with childhood overweight/obesity are lacking in Europe. We identified DPs and investigated their association with overweight/obesity and changes in body mass index (BMI) in a cohort of European children.SUBJECTS/METHODS:Children aged 2-10 from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Food frequency questionnaires were collected from 14 989 children. BMI and BMI z-scores were derived from height and weight and were used to identify overweight/obese children. After 2 years (mean), anthropometric measurements were repeated in 9427 children. Principal component analysis was used to identify DPs. Simplified DPs (SDPs) were derived from DPs. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for overweight/obesity with increasing DP intake were estimated using multilevel logistic regression. Associations of BMI change with DP and SDP were assessed by multilevel mixed regression. Models were adjusted for baseline BMI, age, sex, physical activity and family income.RESULTS:Four DPs were identified that explained 25% of food intake variance: snacking, sweet and fat, vegetables and wholemeal, and protein and water. After 2 years, 849(9%) children became overweight/obese. Children in the highest vegetables and wholemeal tertile had lower risk of becoming overweight/obese (OR: 0.69, 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.54-0.88). Children in the highest SDP tertile of vegetables and wholemeal had similarly lower risk of becoming overweight/obese (OR: 0.64, 95% CIs: 0.51-0.82), and their BMI increased by 0.7 kg/m(2) over the study period-significantly less than the increase in the lowest tertile (0.84 kg/m(2)).CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that promoting a diet rich in vegetables and wholemeal cereals may counteract overweight/obesity in children.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 14 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.145.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 08/2013; DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2013.145 · 2.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture.
    The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jnutbio.2013.02.009 · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p < 0.001). Participants with low or moderate intake of fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 10/2013; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2013.836741 · 1.20 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
2 Downloads
Available from