Survey of American food trends and the growing obesity epidemic

Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606, USA.
Nutrition research and practice (Impact Factor: 1.44). 06/2011; 5(3):253-9. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2011.5.3.253
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rapid rise in the incidence of obesity has emerged as one of the most pressing global public health issues in recent years. The underlying etiological causes of obesity, whether behavioral, environmental, genetic, or a combination of several of them, have not been completely elucidated. The obesity epidemic has been attributed to the ready availability, abundance, and overconsumption of high-energy content food. We determined here by Pearson's correlation the relationship between food type consumption and rising obesity using the loss-adjusted food availability data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Economic Research Services (ERS) as well as the obesity prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Our analysis showed that total calorie intake and consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) did not correlate with rising obesity trends. Intake of other major food types, including chicken, dairy fats, salad and cooking oils, and cheese also did not correlate with obesity trends. However, our results surprisingly revealed that consumption of corn products correlated with rising obesity and was independent of gender and race/ethnicity among population dynamics in the U.S. Therefore, we were able to demonstrate a novel link between the consumption of corn products and rising obesity trends that has not been previously attributed to the obesity epidemic. This correlation coincides with the introduction of bioengineered corns into the human food chain, thus raising a new hypothesis that should be tested in molecular and animal models of obesity.

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    • "On one hand, some authors have attributed deleterious effects to cheese due to its higher energy density, to its elevated content in saturated fat, and to its higher phosphorus content compared with other dairy products (Beydoun et al., 2008). On the other hand, cheese, as distinct from other dairy products, has been inversely associated with obesity (Bradlee et al., 2010), or not correlated with obesity tendencies (Shao & Chin, 2011). To try to elucidate this relationship, the present study assessed the association between consumption of cheese, in general, and between intake of different types of cheeses and overweight (Ov) and obesity (Ob), in a representative sample of the adult population of the Basque Country. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have reported a negative association between dairy product consumption and weight status. However, not as much research has focused on cheese; therefore, the aim of this study was to study the association between cheese intake and overweight and obesity in a representative Basque adult population. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was obtained from a random sample of 1081 adults (530 males and 551 females, 17-96 years old). Cheese consumption data were expressed as g/1000 kcal/day. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in men (55.1%) than in women (35.4%) (p < 0.001). Participants with low or moderate intake of fresh and processed cheese demonstrated a higher prevalence of excess weight, compared with those with higher consumption. The confounding variables selected in multivariate analysis were: occupational status and age in both genders; and place of residence in men. In conclusion, negative associations were found between consumption of some types of cheese and overweight and obesity in this population.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 10/2013; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2013.836741 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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    • "It is also interesting that salinomycin has recently been shown to be a specific inhibitor of cancer stem cells [2], and is undergoing clinical development for cancer therapy [3]. We recently analyzed the Food Availability data from the USDA Economic Research Service in relation to the rising obesity trends and observed that while the consumption of red meat (beef, veal, lamb, and pork) has declined within the same period, poultry consumption in the United States has close to doubled [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The polyether ionophoric antibiotics including monensin, salinomycin, and narasin, are widely used in veterinary medicine and as food additives and growth promoters in animal husbandry including poultry farming. Their effects on human health, however, are not fully understood. Recent studies showed that salinomycin is a cancer stem cell inhibitor. Since poultry consumption has risen sharply in the last three decades, we asked whether the consumption of meat tainted with growth promoting antibiotics might have effects on adipose cells. We showed in this report that the ionophoric antibiotics inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. The block of differentiation is not due to the induction of apoptosis nor the inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, salinomycin also suppresses the transcriptional activity of the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. These results suggest that the ionophoric antibiotics can be exploited as novel anti-obesity therapeutics and as pharmacological probes for the study of adipose biology. Further, the pharmacological effects of salinomycin could be a harbinger of its toxicity on the adipose tissue and other susceptible target cells in cancer therapy.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 10/2012; 428(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.10.080 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "There is an obesity epidemic in much of the developed and developing world [1-6]. Leptin is a cytokine originating mainly from white adipose tissue that plays an important role in regulating energy expenditure, food intake and obesity [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Endurance exercise is known to promote a substantial effect on the energy balance in rats and humans. However, little is known about the exact mechanisms for the appetite-suppressive effects of endurance exercise. We hypothesized that endurance training might activate signaling cascades in the hypothalamus known to be involved in leptin signaling. 16 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: sedentary (n = 8) and exercise groups (n = 8). Animals in the exercise group started treadmill running at 30 m/min, 0% grade, for 1 min/bout. Running time was gradually increased by 2 min/bout every day. The training plan was one bout per day during initial two weeks, and two bouts per day during 3rd-9th week. At the end of nine-week experiment, blood was analyzed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), free fatty acid (FFA), interleukin (IL)-6, and leptin in both groups. Activations of janus kinase 2-signaling transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK2-STAT3), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kninase (ERKs), and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in hypothalamus were measured in the end of nine weeks of exercise protocol. Nine-week endurance exercise induced lower concentrations of LDL-C, TG, TC, FFA, and leptin in rats (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Nine-week endurance exercise significantly increased the circulating IL-6 concentration compared with sedentary group (239.6 ± 37.2 pg/ml vs. 151.8 ± 31.5 pg/ml, P < 0.01). Exercise rats showed significant increases in JAK2, STAT3, Akt, ERKs, and SOCS3 phosphorylations compared with sedentary rats (P < 0.01). The data suggest that endurance exercise is a leptin signaling mimetic in hypothalamus of Wistar rats.
    Lipids in Health and Disease 12/2011; 10(1):225. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-10-225 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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