The impact of moderate to severe renal insufficiency on patients with acute myocardial infarction.
ABSTRACT Renal insufficiency (RI) has been reported to be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, little data is available regarding the impact of moderate to severe RI on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing PCI.
Between March 2003 and July 2007, 878 patients with AMI who underwent PCI were enrolled. Based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation, patients were divided into two groups: eGFR <60 mL/min·m(2) (moderate to severe RI, group A) and eGFR ≥60 mL/min·m(2) (normal to mild RI, group B). The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality at 1-year after successful PCI. The secondary endpoints were non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR), stent thrombosis (ST) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 1-year.
In group A, patients were more often male and older, with diabetes and hypertension. Compared to patients in group B, group A showed significantly higher incidences of all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, non-fatal MI and MACE. The needs of TLR and TVR, and the incidence of ST were not significantly different between the two groups. Independent predictors of 1-year mortality were eGFR <60 mL/min·m(2), male gender, older age and a lower left ventricular ejection fraction.
In patients with AMI, moderate to severe RI was associated with mortality and MACE at 1-year after successful PCI. In addition, eGFR <60 mL/min·m(2) was a strong independent predictor of 1-year mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Total homocysteine (tHcy) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular damage. This study aimed to investigate whether elevated serum levels of the AGEs pentosidine, N(epsilon)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and imidazolone; tHcy, cystathionine, methylmalonic acid (MMA), and 2-methylcitric acid (2-MCA), as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), are related to a higher risk for cardiovascular events. A total of 232 patients with chronic kidney diseases (mean age 57.6 +/- 13.1 years, 82 female and 150 male); 99 with chronic renal failure (CRF), 84 maintenance hemodialysis patients and 49 renal transplant recipients were followed for 2 years. The relationship between the parameters of interest, conventional risk factors and elevated levels of CRP with cardiovascular events was tested in all subjects by the Cox proportional hazards model. Mean serum levels of AGEs, tHcy, and of the metabolites were found to be significantly increased in all three groups compared to the healthy subjects (P < 0.01, respectively). Fifty-three cardiovascular events occurred during follow-up; a total of 40 patients died. Final multivariate analysis showed diabetes (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.17-3.60, P= 0.013), end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (RR 4.88, 95% CI 2.40-9.89, P < 0.001) and elevated CRP levels (RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.11-3.60, P= 0.021) as independent risk factors for cardiovascular events. Data from a group consisting of patients with CRF, patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis treatment, and renal transplant recipients provide evidence that conventional risk factors such as the presence of diabetes, ESRD, as well as elevated levels of the considered risk factor CRP, seem to play a more important role for cardiovascular outcome in patients with chronic kidney disease than elevated levels of AGEs, tHcy, and related metabolites. The evidence suggests that routine CRP measurement can be recommended in cases of chronic renal insufficiency.Kidney International 07/2004; 66(1):338-47. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the impact of serum creatinine levels on in-hospital mortality in 1,359 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction (from a Japanese prospective multicenter registry) who underwent successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Even in the patients who underwent successful primary PCI, the in-hospital mortality of patients with mild (1.2 </= creatinine < 2.0 mg/dl) and severe (creatinine >/=2.0 mg/dl) renal dysfunction was greater (17.1% and 34.5%, respectively) than that of patients without renal dysfunction (3.9%) (relative risk [RR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 3.14, p = 0.080; and RR 4.26, 95% CI 1.48 to 12.27, p <0.0001, respectively).The American Journal of Cardiology 06/2004; 93(12):1526-8. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with end-stage renal disease are known to have decreased survival after myocardial infarction, but the association of less severe renal dysfunction with survival after myocardial infarction is unknown. To determine how patients with renal insufficiency are treated during hospitalization for myocardial infarction and to determine the association of renal insufficiency with survival after myocardial infarction. Cohort study. All nongovernment hospitals in the United States. 130 099 elderly patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized between April 1994 and July 1995. Patients were categorized according to initial serum creatinine level: no renal insufficiency (creatinine level < 1.5 mg/dL [<132 micromol/L]; n = 82 455), mild renal insufficiency (creatinine level, 1.5 to 2.4 mg/dL [132 to 212 micromol/L]; n = 36 756), or moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine level, 2.5 to 3.9 mg/dL [221 to 345 micromol/L]; n = 10 888). Vital status up to 1 year after discharge was obtained from Social Security records. Compared with patients with no renal insufficiency, patients with moderate renal insufficiency were less likely to receive aspirin, beta-blockers, thrombolytic therapy, angiography, and angioplasty during hospitalization. One-year mortality was 24% in patients with no renal insufficiency, 46% in patients with mild renal insufficiency, and 66% in patients with moderate renal insufficiency (P < 0.001). After adjustment for patient and treatment characteristics, mild (hazard ratio, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.63 to 1.73]) and moderate (hazard ratio, 2.35 [CI, 2.26 to 2.45]) renal insufficiency were associated with substantially elevated risk for death during the first month of follow-up. This increased mortality risk continued until 6 months after myocardial infarction. Renal insufficiency was an independent risk factor for death in elderly patients after myocardial infarction. Targeted interventions may be needed to improve treatment for this high-risk population.Annals of internal medicine 11/2002; 137(7):555-62. · 13.98 Impact Factor