Article

A Preliminary Analysis of Interactions Between Genotype, Retrospective ADHD Symptoms, and Initial Reactions to Smoking in a Sample of Young Adults

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, 1 Hoppin Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research (Impact Factor: 2.81). 07/2011; 14(2):229-33. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntr125
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Initial reactions to cigarettes predict later regular smoking. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have also been shown to increase smoking risk and may moderate the relationship between genotype and smoking. We conducted an exploratory study to assess whether ADHD symptoms interact with genetic variation to predict self-reported initial reactions to smoking.
Participants were a subsample of 1,900 unrelated individuals with genotype data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative sample of adolescents followed from 1995 to 2002. Linear regression was used to examine relationships among self-reported ADHD symptoms, genotype, and self-reported initial reactions to cigarettes (index scores reflecting pleasant and unpleasant reactions).
Polymorphisms in the DRD2 gene, SLC6A4 gene, and among males, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting pleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. Polymorphisms in the CYP2A6 gene and, among females, the MAOA gene interacted with retrospective reports of ADHD symptoms in predicting unpleasant initial reaction to cigarettes. No main effect for any of these polymorphisms was observed nor were any interactions with DRD4 and DAT genes.
These findings suggest that genotypes associated with monoamine neurotransmission interact with ADHD symptoms to influence initial reactions to cigarette smoking. Given that an initial pleasant reaction to cigarettes increases risk for lifetime smoking, these results add to a growing body of literature that suggests that ADHD symptoms increase risk for smoking and should be accounted for in genetic studies of smoking.

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    • "In an earlier investigation on the Indo-Caucasoid ADHD probands, we have noticed additive effects of DBH rs1108580 and DRD4 rs1800955, while the DRD4 exon 3 VNTR, DAT1 3′UTR and intron 8 VNTR, MAOA u-VNTR, rs6323, COMT rs4680, rs362204, DBH rs1611115, and rs1108580 were found to exert strong independent effects [5]. Investigation on young adults from USA revealed lack of significant interaction between DRD4 and DAT1 (SLC6A3), while monoaminergic system genes showed significant interaction with ADHD symptoms [67]. On the other hand, an interaction between DRD2-DRD4 was found to be associated with development of CD and adult antisocial behavior in males [68]. "
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    • "It is worth noting that in both studies, there were differences in the findings based on subdomains of ADHD symptoms. For example, only levels of Hyperactive–Impulsive symptoms interacted with DRD2 variants to predict regular smoking (McClernon et al., 2008); and only high levels of Inattention symptoms interacted with MAO-A variants to predict initial subjective responses to smoking (Bidwell et al., 2012). Owing to the findings that nAChR genes and ADHD symptoms have independently associated with smoking outcomes, the interaction of specific alleles of nAChR genes with ADHD symptoms is hypothesized. "
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