Effects of inclusion level and source of dietary sodium on performance and meat characteristics of broiler chickens
Department of Poultry Science, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland. Archives of animal nutrition
(Impact Factor: 1).
06/2011; 65(3):186-202. DOI: 10.1080/1745039X.2011.556331
The effect of different concentrations of dietary Na from three Na salts (NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2SO4) was assessed in two experiments carried out on broiler chickens aged from 1 to 35 days. In Exp. 1, diets were supplemented with 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25% Na, which increased the average Na content of the diets to 0.19, 0.24 and 0.30% respectively. In Exp. 2, the amounts of selected Na salts (NaCI and Na2SO4) were reduced and the estimated Na contents of experimental diets amounted to 0.10, 0.13, 0.15 and 0.19%. In view of the risk factors for the development of foot pad dermatitis, our aim was to find an optimum source of Na and to keep dietary Na intake at the minimum level sufficient to support normal growth and acceptable slaughter quality. The present results suggest that the amount of Na required for the undisturbed growth of broilers and adequate feed conversion is not less than 0.15% of additional Na in the starter period (1-14 d), and not less than 0.11% in the grower period (until day 35). Higher dietary Na levels did not lead to further production advantages, and were found to increase the moisture content of droppings. Dry matter concentration of excreta was also affected by Na source. In comparison with NaHCO3, Na2SO4 seemed to be a better alternative for NaCl. Na2SO4 also tended to surpass NaHCO3 as a dietary alternative for NaCl in terms of feed utilisation during the starter period. The applied additional Na levels (0.25 and 0.15%) and Na sources had no effect on the sensory profile and composition of breast meat.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary sodium levels on serum macroelement concentrations, growth performance and incidence of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in female turkeys raised to six weeks of age. The influence of a low-sodium diet (without additional sodium) and diets supplemented with NaCl to increase sodium content by 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g kg(-1) was compared. The dietary electrolyte balance (DEB) was high (242-248 mEq kg(-1)) due to a high potassium content (11.0 g kg(-1)). Turkeys fed the low-sodium diet were characterized by significantly lower concentrations of chloride (p=0.002) and phosphorus (p<0.001), and significantly higher magnesium levels (p<0.001), compared with the other groups. The lowest dietary inclusion of sodium (0.5 g kg(-1)) contributed to a significant increase in the body weights of turkeys at six weeks of age (p<0.001), and it improved feed conversion efficiency (p<0.001) in comparison with the low-sodium diet. No significant differences in body weight and feed conversion ratio followed experimental treatments with higher dietary NaCl addition. Diets supplemented with different amounts of sodium had no effect on litter moisture content, whereas the incidence of FPD increased significantly following the addition of dietary sodium at 1.0 g kg(-1) to 2.5 g kg(-1), compared with the low-sodium diet. The results of our study indicate that moderate sodium supplementation (0.5 g kg(-1)) of a sodium-deficient diet significantly increased the body weights of young turkeys, while it did not increase the incidence of FPD. A further increase in the sodium content of experimental diets did not increase the body weights of birds, and it enhanced the occurrence of FPD which was not related to increased litter wetness.
Journal of Elementology 04/2012; 17(2/2012). DOI:10.5601/jelem.2012.17.2.10 · 0.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different dietary levels of sodium in diets with and without sodium chloride on mineral metabolism, including blood electrolyte levels and tibia mineralization parameters, in young turkeys (to six weeks of age). The influence of diets with a low (L), medium (M) and high (H) sodium content, at 0.34, 1.34 and 2.82 g/kg respectively, was compared. The content of chloride and potassium in turkey diets (1.7 - 5.9 and 11 g/kg, respectively) was above the recommended levels. The sodium-deficient diet L decreased the serum concentrations of sodium, chloride and phosphorus, and it increased the serum levels of calcium and magnesium in turkeys, compared with groups M and H. Relative to group L, different dietary sodium levels in groups M and H contributed to a similar increase in the body weights of birds (1.06 vs. 1.46 and 1.44 kg, p < 0.001) and in the absolute (4.60 vs. 6.83 and 6.62 g, p < 0.001) and relative tibia weight (0.42 vs. 0.46 and 0.46% body weight, p = 0.031). No significant differences were found between groups with respect to the content of ash, calcium and phosphorus in tibia dry matter. Supplemental sodium increased the bone density index (from 50.6 to 68.4 and 66.3 mg/mm in groups L, M and H, respectively, p < 0.001), the maximum bending moment (from 5.27 to 7.40 and 7.33 N/mm, p = 0.002) and the minimum breaking strength of tibia (from 0.136 to 0.191 and 0.189, p = 0.002). In conclusion, our study indicates that the applied dietary treatment with a moderate sodium level (1.34 g/kg) resulted in a rate of bird growth and tibia mineralization similar to those observed with the treatment with much higher Na content (2.82 g/kg).
Polish journal of veterinary sciences 07/2012; 15(2):227-32. DOI:10.2478/v10181-011-0138-0 · 0.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among numerous changes that have occurred in poultry feeding over the last decades, an important one consists in an increase in the dietary content of strong electrolytes (Na, K and Cl) for slaughter chickens and turkeys. This coincided with a higher incidence of such unfavourable developments as the wet litter syndrome, foot-pad dermatitis (FPD) and deformations of the birds' legs. This paper reviews the results of the latest experiments that have analyzed the effect of different amounts of supplemental NaCl as a source of Na in diets for broiler chickens and turkeys on the concentrations of electrolytes in their blood, the incidence of FPD and leg bone deformations. It has been determined that an increase in Na in chickens' diets within the range of 0-0.25% did not affect FDP symptoms. Turkey diets containing 0.20% of Na intensified the symptoms of FDP compared to a diet without added sodium chloride. In chickens, significant disorders in the mineral balance, including worse physicochemical parameters of the tibia, appeared only when the birds were given feeds with a very low content of sodium (0.02 and 0.07%), made without or with very low sodium supplementation. Increasing the amount of added sodium to over 0.14% of a diet for broiler chickens and to 0.13% for turkeys did not improve the analyzed bone mineralization parameters. The reports reviewed in this paper indicate that the risk of inferior bone mineralization process, mainly due to Na deficiency, as well as a higher litter moisture content and more frequent cases of FPD (as the dietary Na content increases) are more profound among slaughter turkeys than broiler chickens.
Journal of Elementology 09/2012; 19(1/2014). DOI:10.5601/jelem.2014.19.1.414 · 0.69 Impact Factor
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