Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

Laboratoire de Biochimie, Unité de Recherche 02/UR/09-01, Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie, de Monastir, BP 74, 5019 Monastir, Tunisia.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.06). 06/2011; 8(6):2265-303. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8062265
Source: PubMed


Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

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Available from: Benoit Roig, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "A large number of pesticides have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) (Mnif et al., 2011), defined as exogenous agents that interfere with synthesis, secretion , transport, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body that are responsible for maintenance of homeostasis, reproduction, development, and or behavior (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 1997). Frequently reported adverse effects in experimental animals chronically exposed to EDC are decreased fertility in both genders, increased rate of miscarriages, and altered sex ratio (Shojaei-Saadi and Abdollahi, 2012; Yoon et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Brazilian federal government Agency for Health Surveillance detected pesticide residues in fresh food available for consumers all over the country. The current study investigated the effects of a mixture of some of those pesticides (dichlorvos, dicofol, dieldrin, endosulfan, and permethrin) on the reproductive system of Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (WT), and Lewis (LEW) rats. Female rats from each strain were randomized into three experimental groups and were fed a control diet or diets added with pesticides mixture at their respective no-observed-effect level (NOEL)/no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) (low dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (0.23), dicofol (0.5), dieldrin (0.025), endosulfan (0.7), permethrin (5), or lowest-observed-effect level (LOEL)/lowest-effect level (LEL)/ lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) (toxically effective dose) (mg/kg/d): dichlorvos (2.3), dicofol (2.1), dieldrin (0.05), endosulfan (3.8), and permethrin (25) as reported in the literature. Euthanasia was performed between wk 10 and 12, during the estrous stage. Decreased body weights gain (SD and WT) and increased liver weights (SD, WT, and LEW) were observed in each strain fed the pesticides mixture at the higher levels. At that dose level, rat strains also varied in their responses regarding the estrous cycle, hormonal levels, and number of developing ovarian follicles. The studied mixture of pesticides was found to interfere with the female reproductive system when individual pesticides were mixed above a certain level, indicating a threshold exists for each of the strains studied.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 05/2015; 78(9):602-616. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2015.1010467 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    • "These chemicals were chosen because of their wide use, high 38 production and biomonitoring data. Human exposure to the 39 pesticide TM is the consequence of its huge use in the EU, although 40 no biomonitoring data are available for this compound (Mnif et al., 41 2011). The plasticizer and preservatives (DEHP, BP, PP) were 42 selected based on high levels of daily intake of DEHP (Clark et al., 43 2011) and on the high levels of both parabens (BP, PP) in human 44 tissues (Calafat et al., 2010; Meeker et al., 2011; Smith et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Endocrine-disrupting compounds can interfere with the endocrine organs or hormone system and cause tumors, birth defects and developmental disorders in humans. The estrogen-like activity of compounds has been widely studied but little is known concerning their possible modulation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Steroidal (synthetic and natural) and non-steroidal endocrine-active compounds commonly occur as complex mixtures in human environments. Identification of such molecular species, which are responsible for modulating the glucocorticoid receptor are necessary to fully assess their risk. We have used the MDA-kb2 cell line, which expresses endogenous glucocorticoid receptor and a stably transfected luciferase reporter gene construct, to quantify the glucocorticoid-like activity of four compounds present in products in everyday use – propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and tetramethrin (TM). We tested all possible combinations of these compounds at two concentrations (1 μM and 10 nM) and compared their glucocorticoid-like activity. At the concentration of 1 μM seven mixtures were identified to have glucocorticoid-like activity except: DEHP + TM, BP + TM, DEHP + PP + TM, BP + PP + TM. At the concentration of 10 nM only three mixtures have glucocorticoid modulatory activity: DEHP + PP, BP + PP, DEHP + BP + PP + TM. Identified glucocorticoid-like activities were between 1.25 and 1.51 fold at the concentration of 1 μM and between 1.23 and 1.44 fold at the concentration of 10 nM in comparison with the solvent control. Individually BP, PP, and DEHP had glucocorticoid-like activity of 1.60, 1.57 and 1.50 fold over the solvent control at the concentration of 1 μM. On the other hand PP and DEHP, at the concentration of 10 nM, showed no glucocorticoid-like activity, while BP showed 1.44 fold. The assertion that individual glucocorticoid-like compounds do not produce harm because they are present at low, ineffective levels in humans may be irrelevant when we include mixed exposures. This study emphasizes that risk assessment of compounds should take mixture effects into account.
    Toxicology Letters 11/2014; 232(2). DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.11.019 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) are one type of main contaminants to marine ecosystems which had endocrine-disrupting activity on aquatic organisms (Schizas et al., 2001; Wang and Wang, 2005; Jiang et al., 2006; Sánchez-Bayo, 2006; Mnif et al., 2011; Galvao et al., 2012). According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, DDT is carcinogenic and considered as one of priority pollutants because of its environmental behavior and toxic effects (Staton et al., 2002; Sánchez-Bayo , 2006; Galvao et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) as a type of organochlorine pesticides, is an important component of pesticides pollution whose impact on the marine ecosystem is urgently to be evaluated. To investigate the biological effects of DDT on the marine ecosystem, copepods being the main contributor of secondary productivity in the marine ecosystem, were selected as target animals. The influence of DDT on the feeding, respiration, survival, and reproduction of Sinocalanus tenellus (S. tenellus) was analyzed and the antioxidant enzymes activities in the individuals were measured under different exposure concentrations of DDT. The 48 h median lethal concentration (LC50) and 96 h LC50 of DDT to S. tenellus were 5.44 and 2.50 μg/dm3, respectively. The filtration rates, grazing rates, and respiration of S. tenellus decreased apparently with increased DDT concentrations. Under lower concentration (
    Acta Oceanologica Sinica -English Edition- 09/2014; 33(9):133-138. DOI:10.1007/s13131-014-0524-4 · 0.75 Impact Factor
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