Is high-dose nafamostat mesilate effective for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis, especially in high-risk patients?
ABSTRACT Infusion of the protease inhibitor nafamostat mesilate (20 mg) effectively prevents post-ERCP pancreatitis, but only in low-risk groups. This study was performed to evaluate the use of high-dose nafamostat mesilate (50 mg) for prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), especially in high-risk groups.
A total of 608 patients who underwent ERCP were included; 13 patients were excluded. Patients were divided into 3 groups: controls (group A), infusion with 20 mg of nafamostat mesilate (group B), or infusion with 50 mg of nafamostat mesilate (group C). The incidence of PEP was analyzed.
The overall incidence of acute pancreatitis was 7.4% (44/595). There was a significant difference in the incidence of PEP with or without nafamostat mesilate (13.0% vs 4.0% and 5.1%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed that in low-risk patients, the rate of PEP was significantly different with nafamostat (11.9% vs 2.7% and 4.0%, respectively; P = 0.007). In high-risk patients, the rate of PEP was not significantly different among treatment groups (14.6% vs 5.9% vs 6.9%, respectively; P = 0.108).
Nafamostat mesilate prophylaxis (20 or 50 mg) is effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis. However, the preventive effect of high-dose nafamostat mesilate (50 mg) is not significant in high-risk patients.
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ABSTRACT: Background and objectives Multiple deleterious signaling cascades are simultaneously activated in acute pancreatitis (AP), which may limit the success of pharmacologic approaches targeting a single step. We explored whether cooling acinar cells slows distinct steps initiated from a stimulus causing pancreatitis simultaneously, and the temperature range over which inhibition of such deleterious signaling occurs. Methods Caerulein (100nM) induced trypsinogen activation (TGA), CXCL1, CXCL2 mRNA levels, cell injury were studied at 37°C, 34°C, 31°C, 29°C and 25°C in acinar cells. Trypsin, cathepsin B activities and cathepsin B mediated TGA were studied at 37°C, 23°C and 4°C. Results There was >80% reduction in TGA, CXCL1 and CXCL2 mRNA levels at 29°C, and in cell injury at 34°C, compared to those at 37°C. Trypsin activity, cathepsin B activity and cathepsin B mediated TGA at 23°C were respectively, 53%, 64% and 26% of that at 37°C. Acinar cooling to 31°C reduced LDH leakage even when cooling was initiated an hour after caerulein stimulation at 37°C. Conclusions Hypothermia synergistically and simultaneously slows parallel and distinct signaling steps initiated by caerulein, thereby reducing TGA, up regulation of inflammatory mediators and acinar injury.Pancreatology 07/2014; 14(6). DOI:10.1016/j.pan.2014.06.006 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the prophylaxis of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (post-ERCP) pancreatitis. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends routine rectal administration of 100 mg of diclofenac or indomethacin immediately before or after ERCP in all patients without contraindication. In addition to this, in the case of high risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), the placement of a 5-Fr prophylactic pancreatic stent should be strongly considered. Sublingually administered glyceryl trinitrate or 250 µg somatostatin given in bolus injection might be considered as an option in high risk cases if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are contraindicated and if prophylactic pancreatic stenting is not possible or successful. 2 ESGE recommends keeping the number of cannulation attempts as low as possible. 3 ESGE suggests restricting the use of a pancreatic guidewire as a backup technique for biliary cannulation to cases with repeated inadvertent cannulation of the pancreatic duct; if this method is used, deep biliary cannulation should be attempted using a guidewire rather than the contrast-assisted method and a prophylactic pancreatic stent should be placed. 4 ESGE suggests that needle-knife fistulotomy should be the preferred precut technique in patients with a bile duct dilated down to the papilla. Conventional precut and transpancreatic sphincterotomy present similar success and complication rates; if conventional precut is selected and pancreatic cannulation is easily obtained, ESGE suggests attempting to place a small-diameter (3-Fr or 5-Fr) pancreatic stent to guide the cut and leaving the pancreatic stent in place at the end of ERCP for a minimum of 12 - 24 hours. 4 ESGE does not recommend endoscopic papillary balloon dilation as an alternative to sphincterotomy in routine ERCP, but it may be advantageous in selected patients; if this technique is used, the duration of dilation should be longer than 1 minute.Endoscopy 08/2014; 46(9). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1377875 · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obese patients have worse outcomes during acute pancreatitis (AP). Previous animal models of AP have found worse outcomes in obese rodents who may have a baseline proinflammatory state. Our aim was to study the role of acute lipolytic generation of fatty acids on local severity and systemic complications of AP. Human postpancreatitis necrotic collections were analyzed for unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and saturated fatty acids. A model of biliary AP was designed to replicate the human variables by intraductal injection of the triglyceride glyceryl trilinoleate alone or with the chemically distinct lipase inhibitors orlistat or cetilistat. Parameters of AP etiology and outcomes of local and systemic severity were measured. Patients with postpancreatitis necrotic collections were obese, and 13 of 15 had biliary AP. Postpancreatitis necrotic collections were enriched in UFAs. Intraductal glyceryl trilinoleate with or without the lipase inhibitors resulted in oil red O-positive areas, resembling intrapancreatic fat. Both lipase inhibitors reduced the glyceryl trilinoleate-induced increase in serum lipase, UFAs, pancreatic necrosis, serum inflammatory markers, systemic injury, and mortality but not serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin, or amylase. We conclude that UFAs are enriched in human necrotic collections and acute UFA generation via lipolysis worsens pancreatic necrosis, systemic inflammation, and injury associated with severe AP. Inhibition of lipolysis reduces UFA generation and improves these outcomes of AP without interfering with its induction.American Journal Of Pathology 06/2014; 184(6):1773-84. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.02.015 · 4.60 Impact Factor