French adults' cognitive performance after daily supplementation with antioxidant vitamins and minerals at nutritional doses: a post hoc analysis of the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) trial
ABSTRACT Antioxidant properties of some vitamins and trace elements may help to prevent cognitive decline.
The aim of the current study was to estimate the long-term effects of antioxidant nutrient supplementation on the cognitive performance of participants in the Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants (SU.VI.MAX) study 6 y after the end of the trial.
This study included 4447 French participants aged 45-60 y who were enrolled in the SU.VI.MAX study (1994-2002), which was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. From 1994 to 2002, participants received daily vitamin C (120 mg), β-carotene (6 mg), vitamin E (30 mg), selenium (100 μg), and zinc (20 mg) in combination or as a placebo. In 2007-2009, the cognitive performance of participants was assessed with 4 neuropsychological tests (6 tasks). Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to identify cognitive-function summary scores. Associations between antioxidant supplementation and cognitive functions, in the full sample and by subgroups, were estimated through ANOVA and expressed as mean differences and 95% CIs. Subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline characteristics.
Subjects receiving active antioxidant supplementation had better episodic memory scores (mean difference: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.02, 1.20). PCA indicated 2 factors that were interpreted as showing verbal memory and executive functioning. Verbal memory was improved by antioxidant supplementation only in subjects who were nonsmokers or who had low serum vitamin C concentrations at baseline.
This study supports the role of an adequate antioxidant nutrient status in the preservation of verbal memory under certain conditions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
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ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: We evaluated the cross-time association between midlife dietary vitamin D intake and subsequent cognitive performance in a French general-population sample. Methods: Data from participants in both the SU.VI.MAX trial (1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 observational study (2007-2009) were used. Dietary intake was estimated at baseline from 6 or more 24-hour records. Cognitive performance was evaluated 13 years later with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Parameter estimates of cognitive performance according to quartiles (Q) of vitamin D intake were estimated via ANCOVA. Results: In a sample of 1,990 aging adults, principal component analyses yielded two cognitive factors - for episodic/semantic memory and short-term memory/executive function; however, neither one displayed associations with dietary vitamin D intake. Midlife vitamin D intake was significantly and positively associated with scores on the forward digit span task measuring short-term memory (fully adjusted model: mean difference, Q4 vs. Q1 = 1.95; 95% CI 0.37-3.53; ptrend = 0.03). No significant interaction with either sex or lifetime sun exposure was found. Conclusions: Midlife vitamin D intake exhibited a cross-time and domain-specific association with cognition in the context of aging. Further investigations in this area of prevention are warranted given the rapidly expanding elderly population and the absence of curative treatment for dementia. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 09/2014; 65(1):81-89. DOI:10.1159/000365154 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives. We examined the association between individual and clustered lifestyle behaviors in middle age and later in cognitive functioning. Methods. Middle-aged participants (n = 2430) in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant study self-reported their low physical activity, sedentary behavior, alcohol use, smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and low fish consumption. We assessed cognition 13 years later via 6 neuropsychological tests. After standardization, we summed the scores for a composite cognitive measure. We estimated executive functioning and verbal memory scores using principal component analysis. We estimated the mean differences (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) in cognitive performance by the number of unhealthy behaviors using analysis of covariance. We identified latent unhealthy behavior factor via structural equation modeling. Results. Global cognitive function and verbal memory were linearly, negatively associated with the number of unhealthy behaviors: adjusted mean differences = -0.36 (95% CI = -0.69, -0.03) and -0.46 (95% CI = -0.80, -0.11), respectively, per unit increase in the number of unhealthy behaviors. The latent unhealthy behavior factor with low fruit and vegetable consumption and low physical activity as main contributors was associated with reduced verbal memory (RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.96; P = .004). No association was found with executive functioning. Conclusions. Comprehensive public health strategies promoting healthy lifestyles might help deter cognitive aging. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 11, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302121).American Journal of Public Health 09/2014; 104(11):e1-e8. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302121 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race, and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30 to 64 years at baseline (mean [standard deviation] = 47.5 [9.3]) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study, Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hour recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E per 1000 kcal. Among key findings, 1 standard deviation (∼2.02 mg/1000 kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall (β = +0.64 [0.19], p = .001), and better language/verbal fluency performance (β = +0.53 [0.16], p = .001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β = +0.68 [0.21], p = .001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated = 13%-16%). In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed.Psychosomatic Medicine 12/2014; 77(1). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000129 · 4.09 Impact Factor