Immunomodulatory beta-glucan from Lentinus edodes activates mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappaB in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.
ABSTRACT Lentinan, a cell wall β-glucan from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, is well known to be a biological defense modifier, but the signal transduction pathway(s) induced by Lentinan have not been elucidated. In this study, we extracted Lentinan (LNT-S) by ultrasonication from Lentinus edodes and report that, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages, LNT-S glucan activated NF-κB p65 and triggered its nuclear translocation as determined by Western blotting. Moreover, LNT-S enhanced NF-κB-luciferase activity in the Dual-Luciferase gene system assay. Its upstream signaling molecules, MAPKs such as ERK1/2 and JNK1/2, were shown to be activated by assessing the level of phosphorylation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, but its downstream proinflammatory enzyme, inducible NOS, was not observed. The data evaluated using a TNF-α ELISA kit and Griess reagent further demonstrated that no proinflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and NO were produced by LNT-S stimulation in RAW 264.7 cells. In contrast, LPS significantly induced inducible NOS expression and increased NO and TNF-α production, which are associated with activation of the NF-κB p65/p50 heterodimer complex. It is possible that LNT-S did not activate NF-κB p65/p50, and the activation of NF-κB p65 was not sufficient to stimulate cytokine production. These data demonstrate that LNT-S glucan carries out its immunomodulating activity by activating MAPK signaling pathways without secretion of TNF-α and NO.
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ABSTRACT: The promoter of the murine gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contains an NF-kappa B site beginning 55 base pairs upstream of the TATA box, designated NF-kappa Bd. Reporter constructs containing truncated promoter regions, when transfected into macrophages, revealed that NF-kappa Bd is necessary to confer inducibility by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oligonucleotide probes containing NF-kappa Bd plus the downstream 9 or 47 base pairs bound proteins that rapidly appeared in the nuclei of LPS-treated macrophages. The nuclear proteins bound to both probes in an NF-kappa Bd-dependent manner, but binding was resistant to cycloheximide only for the shorter probe. The proteins binding both probes reacted with antibodies against p50 and c-rel but not RelB; those binding the shorter probe also reacted with anti-RelA (p65). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, which acts as a specific inhibitor of NF-kappa B, blocked both the activation of the NF-kappa Bd-binding proteins and the production of NO in LPS-treated macrophages. Thus, activation of NF-kappa B/Rel is critical in the induction of iNOS by LPS. However, additional, newly synthesized proteins contribute to the NF-kappa Bd-dependent transcription factor complex on the iNOS promoter in LPS-treated mouse macrophages.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1994; 269(7):4705-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mushroom polysaccharides have been shown to regulate glucose metabolism. Using male Wistar rats injected with saline (normal rats), streptozotocin (STZ-NT rats), or streptozotocin plus nicotinamide (STZ+NT rats), we investigated the hypoglycemic activity of orally ingested fruiting bodies (FB), submerged culture biomass (CM), or the acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible jelly mushroom. Our results demonstrated that FB ingestion significantly attenuated the elevated blood glucose levels in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in STZ-NT rats. However, in STZ+NT rats, FB, CM, and GXM ingestion significantly attenuated the increases in food and water intake, 2-h postprandial blood glucose concentrations, and blood glucose levels in OGTT. Moreover, FB and GXM ingestion significantly decreased serum concentration of fructosamine in STZ+NT rats. Our results indicated that T. mesenterica might be developed as a potential oral hypoglycemic agent or functional food for diabetic patients and for persons with high risk for diabetes mellitus.Life Sciences 04/2006; 78(17):1957-66. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PGG-Glucan (Betafectin) is a novel soluble beta-glucan immunomodulator that enhances leukocyte microbicidal activities without inducing inflammatory cytokines. Although several different receptors for soluble and particulate beta-glucans have been described, the signal transduction pathway(s) used by soluble beta-glucans have not been elucidated. We report that in a murine monocytic cell line (BMC2.3) PGG-Glucan activates nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-like and NF-interleukin-6 (IL-6)-like transcription factors. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that PGG-Glucan activation of the factors is time- and concentration-dependent. The NF-kappaB-like complex includes subunit p65 (rel-A) as one of its components, but apparently not p50 (kappaB1), p52 (kappaB2), p68 (rel-B), or p75 (C-rel) family members. The NF-IL-6-like complex contains subunit C/EBP-beta (NF-IL-6alpha) as one of its components, but apparently not C/EBP-alpha or C/EBP-delta (NF-IL-6beta). As expected, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated p65/p50 NF-kappaB and C/EBP-beta NF-IL-6 complexes, increased the nuclear titer of p65 and p50 antigens, and increased cytokine (IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha) mRNA production. In contrast, PGG-Glucan increased the nuclear titer of p65, but apparently not p50, and did not induce cytokine mRNA production. These data demonstrate that PGG-Glucan utilizes signal transduction pathways different from those used by LPS. The data suggest that activation of the PGG-Glucan-stimulated factors is not sufficient to stimulate cytokine mRNA transcription.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 01/1998; 62(6):865-73. · 4.57 Impact Factor