Article

Biomonitoring for exposure to multiple trace elements via analysis of urine from participants in the Study of Metals and Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SMART)

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY, USA.
Journal of Environmental Monitoring (Impact Factor: 2.11). 07/2011; 13(9):2413-9. DOI: 10.1039/c1em10341e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Humans are exposed to concentrations of multiple trace elements through a variety of background sources; many are suspected reproductive toxicants. Prior to investigating associations between trace elements and human reproductive health, potential biomarkers of exposure should be characterized by sources of variability in the population at risk. Factors influencing elemental exposure should also be identified to ensure their consideration as potential confounding variables. The principal aim of this study is to characterize sources of variability for 19 trace elements measured in urine specimens collected from 55 women and 36 male partners completing a 1st cycle of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Urine specimens were analyzed using a biomonitoring method based on inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Randomly selected urine specimens (∼6%) were analyzed in duplicate, and these data were used to characterize sources of variability. Nine trace elements including As, Ba, Cd, Cs, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Zn, were quantified in most specimens, indicating their utility in future epidemiologic studies of trace elements exposure and IVF outcomes. With few exceptions, normalizing urine using the traditional creatinine-correction procedure, or an alternative approach based on a linear regression model, increased residual variability only slightly. Sex and race appear to be important factors to consider in epidemiologic studies conducted in this population. Urine concentrations for most elements are similar to those reported in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); however, differences in others may indicate regional trends or a unique exposure history for this infertile study population.

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    • "We also included total serum lipids as a proxy marker for POPs, an approach we have previously employed (Buck Louis et al., 2012); these compounds distribute to the lipid compartment (Phillips et al., 1989) and have been associated with birth outcomes in this (Robledo et al., 2015) and other study populations (Govarts et al., 2012). Creatinine was entered as a covariate to accommodate urine dilution (Kim et al., 2011). We evaluated covariate-adjusted associations between elements and time of delivery using Cox-proportional hazards models and newborn sex using log-binomial models. "
    Environmental Research 06/2015; In press. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.06.012 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "We also included total serum lipids as a proxy marker for POPs, an approach we have previously employed (Buck Louis et al., 2012); these compounds distribute to the lipid compartment (Phillips et al., 1989) and have been associated with birth outcomes in this (Robledo et al., 2015) and other study populations (Govarts et al., 2012). Creatinine was entered as a covariate to accommodate urine dilution (Kim et al., 2011). We evaluated covariate-adjusted associations between elements and time of delivery using Cox-proportional hazards models and newborn sex using log-binomial models. "
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    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that trace exposures to select elements may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes. To investigate further, we used multiple regression to assess associations between preconception parental exposures to Pb, Cd, and total Hg in blood, and 21 elements in urine, with n=235 singleton birth outcomes, adjusted for confounders and partner's exposure. Earlier gestational age at delivery (GA) was associated with higher tertiles of urine maternal W (−1.22 days) and paternal U (−1.07 days), but GA was later for higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11 days) and paternal (+1.30 days) blood Hg. Additional analysis indicated shorter GA associated with higher paternal urine Ba, W, and U, and with higher maternal blood Pb for boys, but GA was longer in association with higher maternal urine Cr. Birth weight (BW) was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine Cs (−237.85 g), U (−187.34 g), and Zn (−209.08 g), and for higher continuous Cr (P=0.021). In contrast, BW was higher for higher tertiles of paternal urine As (+194.71 g) and counterintuitively for maternal blood Cd (+178.52 g). Birth length (BL) was shorter for higher tertiles of urine maternal W (−1.22 cm) and paternal U (−1.10 cm). Yet, higher tertiles of maternal (+1.11 cm) and paternal (+1.30) blood Hg were associated with longer BL. Head circumference at delivery was lower for higher tertiles of paternal urine U (−0.83 cm), and for higher continuous Mo in boys (−0.57 cm). Overall, associations were most consistently indicated for GA and measures of birth size with urine W and U, and paternal exposures were more frequently associated than maternal. Though limited by several factors, ours is the largest multi-element investigation of prospective couple-level trace exposures and birth outcomes to date; the novel observations for W and U merit further investigation.
    Environmental Research 04/2015; 138:118-129. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2015.01.008 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "We also included total serum lipids as a proxy marker for POPs, an approach we have previously employed (Buck Louis et al., 2012); these compounds distribute to the lipid compartment (Phillips et al., 1989) and have been associated with birth outcomes in this (Robledo et al., 2015) and other study populations (Govarts et al., 2012). Creatinine was entered as a covariate to accommodate urine dilution (Kim et al., 2011). We evaluated covariate-adjusted associations between elements and time of delivery using Cox-proportional hazards models and newborn sex using log-binomial models. "
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