Soft-tissue characteristics of operated unilateral complete cleft lip and palate patients in mixed dentition.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to provide quantitative information about the facial soft-tissue characteristics of operated unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP) children compared with healthy children during mixed dentition.
Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 48 children with UCCLP who had been operated on before the age of 2 years were analyzed and compared with those of a control group of 60 healthy children with the same age, sex, and ethnic characteristics.
The children with operated UCCLP differed from the control group by having a more concave profile, flatter nasal tip, more retrognathic basis nasi, shorter upper lip, thicker upper and lower lip, reduced upper-lip projection, and increased lower-lip projection.
The facial soft-tissue morphology in operated UCCLP patients differed from normal controls of the same age, sex, and ethnic group. It may be necessary for children with UCCLP operated before 2 years of age to have some preventive treatment.
- The Angle Orthodontist 08/1973; 43(3):233-46. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article presents a soft-tissue analysis which demonstrates the inadequacy of using a hard-tissue analysis alone for treatment planning. The material and methods used to develop this technique came from years of observation and description of patients from the private practice of the author. The findings indicate that, in general, for adolescents the normal or usual thickness of the soft tissue at point A is 14 to 16 mm. As point A is altered by tooth movement, headgear, etc., the soft tissue will follow this point and remain the same thickness. When there is taper in the maxillary lip immediately anterior to the incisor, as in protrusive dentures, the tissue will thicken as the incisors are moved lingually until the tissue approaches the thickness at point A (within 1 mm. of the thickness at point A). When the lip taper has been eliminated, further lingual movement of the incisor will now cause the lip to follow the incisors in a one-to-one ratio. These concepts are predictable in adolescents when the lip thickness at point A is within the normal range. Some exceptions are as follows: Even if there is lip taper, if the tissue thickness at point A is very thin (for example, 9 to 10 mm.), the lip may follow the incisor immediately and still retain the taper. If the tissue at point A is very thick (for example, 18 to 20 mm.), the lip may not follow incisor movement at all. Adult tissue reaction is similar to the first exception. Even though there may be lip taper, the lips will usually follow the teeth immediately. Cases are presented to demonstrate these concepts and to illustrate a normal or acceptable range of variation for facial harmony related to variations in skeletal convexity.American Journal of Orthodontics 08/1983; 84(1):1-28.
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ABSTRACT: Placement of teeth according to accepted cephalometric criteria does not necessarily ensure that overlying soft tissue will drape in a harmonious manner. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of maxillary lip thickness and lip strain on the relationship between dental and integumental tissue changes in orthodontically treated patients. Data were derived from pretreatment and retention lateral cephalometric head films of forty Caucasian subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions. All patients were treated with edgewise appliances. Percentile groups were created for males and females according to the magnitude of maxillary lip thickness and lip strain. It was found that there was significant correlation between osseous changes and soft-tissue changes in both males (r= 0.83, p less than 0.01) and females (r = 0.85, p less than 0.01). Strong correlations were found between osseous changes and soft-tissue changes in subjects with thin lips (males, r equal to 0.92, p less than 0.01; females, r = 0.98, p less than 0.01), whereas no significant correlations were found in subjects with thick lips. Significant correlations were found between incisor changes and vermillion border changes in males (r = 0.61, p less than 0.01) and females (r = 0.51, p less than 0.05). Correlations were strong between incisor changes and vermilion border changes in subjects with high lip strain (males, r equal 0.92, p less than 0.01; females, r = 0.82, p less than 0.05) but were significant in subjects with low lip strain.American Journal of Orthodontics 09/1982; 82(2):141-9.