Soft-Tissue Characteristics of Operated Unilateral Complete Cleft Lip and Palate Patients in Mixed Dentition
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to provide quantitative information about the facial soft-tissue characteristics of operated unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLP) children compared with healthy children during mixed dentition.
Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 48 children with UCCLP who had been operated on before the age of 2 years were analyzed and compared with those of a control group of 60 healthy children with the same age, sex, and ethnic characteristics.
The children with operated UCCLP differed from the control group by having a more concave profile, flatter nasal tip, more retrognathic basis nasi, shorter upper lip, thicker upper and lower lip, reduced upper-lip projection, and increased lower-lip projection.
The facial soft-tissue morphology in operated UCCLP patients differed from normal controls of the same age, sex, and ethnic group. It may be necessary for children with UCCLP operated before 2 years of age to have some preventive treatment.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to cephalometrically evaluate the facial soft-tissue characteristics of adolescent patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and to compare them with a noncleft control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained from 56 adolescents with nonsyndromic BCLP (29 boys and 27 girls) were analyzed and compared with 67 control subjects (29 boys and 38 girls) who were matched for sex, age, and ethnicity. All patients had been operated on before the age of 2 years for the surgical repair of cleft lip and palate. None had received any orthopedic or orthodontic treatment. Independent-samples t test revealed that patients with BCLP significantly differed from the control group by having a flatter facial profile, thinner and more retruded nasal base, flatter nasal tip (in males), and reduced upper-lip length. Furthermore, thicker lower-lip pit, shallower mentolabial sulcus, and increased inclination angles of the upper and lower lips relative to the horizontal plane were observed in female patients compared with the normal group. The findings of the current study suggested that adolescent patients with BCLP showed several facial soft-tissue deformities when compared with normal individuals with the same age, sex, and ethnic origin. This study provides objective measures that could lead to better treatment planning and prediction of the need for corrective surgeries in patients with BCLP.The Journal of craniofacial surgery 01/2014; 25(1):314-7. DOI:10.1097/SCS.0000000000000446 · 0.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the facial soft-tissue thicknesses and craniofacial morphologies of patients affected by bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) and to compare the findings with a well-matched control group without any clefts using cone-beam computed tomography. The study sample consisted of 40 retrospectively and randomly selected patients divided into 2 groups: a BCLP group (20 patients; mean age, 13.78 ± 3.20 years) and an age- and sex-matched control group without clefts (20 patients; mean age, 13.94 ± 2.52 years). Craniofacial and facial soft-tissue thickness measurements were made with cone-beam computed tomography. The Student t test and multiple linear regression analyses were performed for the statistical evaluations. The BCLP group had an increased SN-MP angle (P = 0.003), a decreased Co-A (P = 0.000), and retruded maxillary (P = 0.000) and mandibular (P = 0.026) incisors. In addition, patients affected by BCLP had statistically significantly decreased thickness measurements for the variables subnasale (P = 0.005) and labrale superior (P = 0.026) compared with the controls. The most predictive variables were found at U1-SN (r = 0.417, P = 0.004), IMPA (r = 0.368, P = 0.010), and ANB (r = -0.297, P = 0.031) for subnasale and U1-SN (r = 0.284, P = 0.038) for labrale superior. The BCLP group showed greater vertical growth, greater retrusion of the maxilla and the maxillary and mandibular incisors, and decreased subnasale and labrale superior thicknesses compared with the well-matched controls without clefts. These differences should be taken into account when planning orthodontic and orthognathic surgery treatment for those patients. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 11/2014; 146(5):573-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.07.005 · 1.44 Impact Factor