A preliminary investigation of the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder on gastrointestinal distress in patients with comorbid panic disorder and irritable bowel syndrome.
ABSTRACT High comorbidity between panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (PD/A) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been identified in the literature. These findings have resulted in the recent development of neurobiological models to explain their overlapping symptoms and related origins. This study was a preliminary investigation of the influence of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for PD/A on PD/A patients with and without comorbid IBS.
All patients completed a thorough intake assessment, brief waitlist period, and a 12-week CBT group for PD/A.
The results demonstrated significant reductions in the symptoms of anxiety, depression, and overall impairment in both patient groups (ts>2.3; Ps<.05). In addition, PD/A patients with comorbid IBS also experienced reductions in the disability and distress associated with their gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS (ts>1.9; Ps<.07).
Although additional research still is needed, these preliminary findings suggest that CBT for PD/A can be used to simultaneously treat comorbid symptoms of PD/A and IBS. Implications for the neurobiological models for these comorbid conditions were discussed.
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of the present review were to summarise the key findings from the clinical literature regarding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and their implications for maximising treatment outcomes. Several neuroanatomical structures in the prefrontal and limbic areas of the brain are involved in affective regulation. In patients with MDD, alterations in the dynamic patterns of activity among these structures have profound implications for the pathogenesis of this illness. The present work reviews the evidence for the progressive nature of MDD along with associated changes in neuroanatomical structure and function, especially for the hippocampus. The role of glucocorticoids, inflammatory cytokines and brain-derived growth factors are discussed as mediators of these pathological alterations. From this integrated model, the role of antidepressant therapy in restoring normative processes is examined along with additional treatment guidelines. Major depressive disorder is an illness with significant neurobiological consequences involving structural, functional and molecular alterations in several areas of the brain. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy is associated with restoration of the underlying physiology. Clinicians are advised to intervene with MDD using an early, comprehensive treatment approach that has remission as the goal.International Journal of Clinical Practice 01/2008; 61(12):2030-40. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Illness Intrusiveness Ratings Scale (IIRS) measures the extent to which disease or its treatment or both interfere with activities in important life domains. Before comparing IIRS scores within or across groups it is crucial to determine whether a common underlying factor structure exists across patient populations. To investigate the factor structure underlying the IIRS and evaluate its stability across diagnoses. IIRS responses from 5,671 respondents were pooled from 15 separate studies concerning quality of life in eight patient groups: rheumatoid arthritis; osteoarthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; multiple sclerosis; end-stage renal disease (maintenance dialysis); renal transplantation; heart, liver, and lung transplantation; and insomnia. Data were gathered by different methods (eg, interview, self-administered, mail survey) and in diverse contexts (eg, individual vs. group). Exploratory maximum-likelihood factor analysis identified three underlying factors in a randomly selected subset of respondents (n = 400), corresponding to "Relationships and Personal Development," "Intimacy," and "Instrumental" life domains. Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the stability of this structure in an independent subsample (n = 2100). Complementary goodness-of-fit indices confirmed the consistency of the three-factor solution, corroborating that IIRS scores are uniquely defined across patient populations. Coefficient alpha was high for total and subscale scores. IIRS scores can be compared meaningfully within and across patient groups. Both total and subscale scores can be used depending on research objectives.Medical Care 11/2001; 39(10):1097-104. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have identified stress system dysregulation in fibromyalgia (FM) patients; such dysregulation may be involved in the generation and/or maintenance of pain and other symptoms. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the principal known central nervous system mediator of the stress response; however, to date no studies have examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRF levels in patients with FM. The relationship between CSF CRF level, heart rate variability (HRV), and pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms was examined in patients with FM. Among participants (n=26), CSF CRF levels were associated with sensory pain symptoms (r=0.574, p=0.003) and affective pain symptoms (r=0.497, p=0.011), but not fatigue symptoms. Increased HRV was also strongly associated with increased CSF CRF and FM pain. In multivariate analyses adjusting for age, sex, and depressive symptoms, the association between CSF CRF and sensory pain symptoms (t=2.54, p=0.027) persisted. Women with FM who reported a history of physical or sexual abuse had lower CSF CRF levels than women who did not report such a history. CSF CRF levels are associated with both pain symptoms and variation in autonomic function in FM. Differences in CSF CRF levels among women with and without a self-reported history of physical or sexual abuse suggest that subgroups of FM patients may exist with different neurobiological characteristics. Further studies are needed to better understand the nature of the association between CSF CRF and pain symptoms in FM.Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2007; 31(12):2776-82. · 8.68 Impact Factor