This study was undertaken to examine the gender-sensitivity and chemopreventive responsiveness of celecoxib on intestinal stem-like cells as a biomarker of colon carcino-genesis, using the MIN mouse model. Male and female MIN mice (6-7-weeks old) were randomized to either control diet or to a diet supplemented with celecoxib (1,500 ppm). The animals were euthanized ten weeks later and the intestines were flushed and opened longitudinally to assess tumor count. Small intestinal segments were formalin-fixed and tissue sections were subjected to immunohistochemical evaluation of DCAMKL1, a known marker of stem-like cells. We found that in animals receiving control (AIN 76A diet) alone, female MIN mice had a higher polyp count than males (52.32 ± 13.89 vs. 35.43 ± 16.05; p<0.0005). However, compared to control diet groups, celecoxib supplementation caused a larger reduction in the number of polyps in females than their male cohorts (6.38 ± 1.43 vs. 12.83 ± 6.74; a reduction of 88% in females to 64% in males). Significant differences (p=0.013) were observed in the number of DCAMKL1-stained cells in the crypts of the wild-type (WT) (10.01 ± 1.07 stem cells per high powered field; HPF) compared to the MIN mice (24.15 ± 8.08 stem cells per HPF), illustrating increased stem-like cells in animals that are more prone to neoplasia. DCAMKL1 labeled stem-like cells were equal in number in the male and female groups receiving the control AIN 76A diet alone (females, 25.73 stem-like cells/HPF); males, 24.15 stem-like cells/HPF). However, females showed a greater reduction in the number of DCAMKL1-labeled stem-like cells with celecoxib supplementation than the respective males (16.63 ± 4.23 vs. 21.56 ± 9.06; a reduction of 35.4% in females to 10.7% in males). We conclude that a higher number of stem-like cells in the uninvolved mucosa paralleled tumorigenesis and mirrored greater chemopreventive responsiveness of female MIN mice compared to males.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colon carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death from cancer and is characterized by a heterogenic pool of cells with distinct differentiation patterns. Recently, it was reported that a population of undifferentiated cells from a primary tumor, so-called cancer stem cells (CSC), can reconstitute the original tumor on xenotransplantation. Here, we show that spheroid cultures of these colon CSCs contain expression of CD133, CD166, CD44, CD29, CD24, Lgr5, and nuclear beta-catenin, which have all been suggested to mark the (cancer) stem cell population. More importantly, by using these spheroid cultures or freshly isolated tumor cells from multiple colon carcinomas, we now provide compelling evidence to indicate that the capacity to propagate a tumor with all differentiated progeny resides in a single CSC. Single-cell-cloned CSCs can form an adenocarcinoma on xenotransplantation but do not generate the stroma within these tumors. Moreover, they can self-renew and are capable of multilineage differentiation. Further analysis indicated that the lineage decision is dictated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling in CSCs. These data support the hypothesis that tumor hierarchy can be traced back to a single CSC that contains multilineage differentiation capacity, and provides clues to the regulation of differentiation in colon cancers in vivo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2008; 105(36):13427-32. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0805706105 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on investigation of the earliest colonic tissue alteration in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) patients, we present the hypothesis that initiation of colorectal cancer by adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation is mediated by dysregulation of two cellular mechanisms. One involves differentiation, which normally decreases the proportion (proliferative fraction) of colonic crypt cells that can proliferate; the other is a cell cycle mechanism that simultaneously increases the probability that proliferative cells are in S phase. In normal crypts, stem cells (SC) at the crypt bottom generate rapidly proliferating cells, which undergo differentiation while migrating up the crypt. Our modeling of normal crypts suggests that these transitions are mediated by mechanisms that regulate proliferative fraction and S-phase probability. In FAP crypts, the population of rapidly proliferating cells is shifted upwards, as indicated by the labeling index (LI; i.e., crypt distribution of cells in S phase). Our analysis of FAP indicates that these transitions are delayed because the proliferative fraction and S-phase probability change more slowly as a function of crypt level. This leads to expansion of the proliferative cell population, including a subpopulation that has a low frequency of S-phase cells. We previously reported that crypt SC overpopulation explains the LI shift. Here, we determine that SCs (or cells having high stemness) are proliferative cells with a low probability of being in S phase. Thus, dysregulation of mechanisms that control proliferative fraction and S-phase probability explains how APC mutations induce SC overpopulation at the crypt bottom, shift the rapidly proliferating cell population upwards, and initiate colon tumorigenesis.
Cancer Research 06/2008; 68(9):3304-13. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2061 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of two main constituents of green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, on intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice, a recognized mouse model for human intestinal cancer, and to elucidate possible mechanisms involved in the inhibitory action of the active constituent. We found that p.o. administration of EGCG at doses of 0.08% or 0.16% in drinking fluid significantly decreased small intestinal tumor formation by 37% or 47%, respectively, whereas caffeine at a dose of 0.044% in drinking fluid had no inhibitory activity against intestinal tumorigenesis. In another experiment, small intestinal tumorigenesis was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by p.o. administration of EGCG in a dose range of 0.02% to 0.32%. P.o. administration of EGCG resulted in increased levels of E-cadherin and decreased levels of nuclear beta-catenin, c-Myc, phospho-Akt, and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in small intestinal tumors. Treatment of HT29 human colon cancer cells with EGCG (12.5 or 20 micromol/L at different times) also increased protein levels of E-cadherin by 27% to 58%, induced the translocation of beta-catenin from nucleus to cytoplasm and plasma membrane, and decreased c-Myc and cyclin D1 (20 micromol/L EGCG for 24 hours). These results indicate that EGCG effectively inhibited intestinal tumorigenesis in Apc(min/+) mice, possibly through the attenuation of the carcinogenic events, which include aberrant nuclear beta-catenin and activated Akt and ERK signaling.
Cancer Research 12/2005; 65(22):10623-31. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1949 · 9.33 Impact Factor
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