Experience with laparoscopic donor nephrectomy among more than 1000 cases: low complication rates, despite more challenging cases.
ABSTRACT Despite the overall acceptance of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDNX), concern remains about the application of this technique in certain complex situations, such as right-sided nephrectomies and in donors with complex kidney anatomy and obese donors. This study was designed to determine if complication rates have remained stable as we have offered LDNX to all medically acceptable donors and to analyze the results of cases in each of the complex categories. We hypothesized that complication rates in the 3 complex categories would be equivalent to those among more straightforward cases.
Retrospective medical record review.
Academic medical center.
A total of 1045 patients who underwent LDNX between November 3, 1999, and August 28, 2009.
Operative times, lengths of hospital stay, overall complications, major complications, conversions to open surgery, blood transfusions, readmissions, and reoperations.
The outcomes of the first 250 patients (when LDNX was selectively offered) were compared with the outcomes of the last 795 patients (when LDNX was offered to all medically acceptable donors). Overall operative times significantly improved (212 vs 176 minutes), overall complication rates did not change (6.4% vs 5.5%), and major complication rates significantly declined (4.0% vs 1.4%). Among the last 795 patients, 1 conversion to open surgery and 1 blood transfusion occurred. There were no deaths in the series. Moreover, no differences in overall or major complication rates were seen when cases involving 200 right-sided nephrectomies, 204 donors with complex kidney anatomy, and 148 obese donors were analyzed independently.
Low complication rates persist for LDNX, even when applied to more technically challenging cases. This procedure is offered to all medically acceptable donors, with an excellent safety profile, and should be considered the standard of care for kidney donation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the technique of laparoscopic kidney transplant and demonstrate the feasibility of this procedure by an extraperitoneal approach. The procedure was performed on 2 human cadavers. Retroperitoneal endoscopic left nephrectomy was performed. An extraperitoneal space was established by inflation of a balloon dilator. The external iliac artery and vein were exposed. A Pfannenstiel incision (6 cm) was made and a hand-access device was used. The renal artery was anastomosed to the external iliac artery (end-to-side anastomosis); the renal vein was anastomosed to the external iliac vein (end-to-side anastomosis). The ureter was anastomosed to the bladder with an extravesical tunnelling technique. The donor kidney grafts were obtained successfully. The preparation of the external iliac artery and vein was satisfactory. The entire procedure for the renal artery, renal vein, and ureteral anastomoses was performed with laparoscopic technique without any difficulty. The present model on human cadavers may provide a feasible approach for training surgeons to perform human laparoscopic kidney transplant. The present technique may be applied to clinical human kidney transplant.02/2014; 12(1):21-4. DOI:10.6002/ect.2013.0173
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery has become the preferred approach in surgical practice due to multiple benefits. Over the last decade, kidney transplant by laparoscopic or robotic techniques have been explored. The aim of this study is to establish a new laparoscopic technique for kidney orthotopic transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the University. Ten live female pigs (Sus scrofa), weighing 45-50 kg, underwent laparoscopic kidney orthotopic transplant on left side under general anesthesia, and the opposite right kidney was defunctioned by complete ligation of the ureter at the same time. RESULTS: The vital signs of all pigs were stable during the surgery and postoperative period. There were no intraoperative complications and no conversion to open surgery. The laparoscopic kidney transplant was successful in seven of 10 pigs. Seven pigs were observed up to 4 wk as planned in the study. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study of laparoscopic kidney orthotopic transplant in pig model with satisfactory immediate graft function. It was demonstrated that laparoscopic kidney transplant is a feasible, reliable, and safe procedure. However, it is a very demanding technique. Adequate training is mandatory for performing laparoscopic kidney transplant. This study could be used as a training model for surgeons who wish to perform human laparoscopic kidney transplant in the future.Journal of Surgical Research 03/2013; 184(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.03.015 · 2.12 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard for live-donor nephrectomy, as it results in a short convalescence time and increased quality of life. However, intraoperative safety has been debated, as severe complications occur incidentally. Hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (HARP) is an alternative approach, combining the safety of hand-guided surgery with the benefits of endoscopic techniques and retroperitoneal access. We assessed the best approach to optimize donors' quality of life and safety. In two tertiary referral centers, donors undergoing left-sided nephrectomy were randomly assigned to HARP or LDN. Primary endpoint was physical function, one of the dimensions of the Short Form-36 questionnaire on quality of life, at 1 month postoperatively. Secondary endpoints included intraoperative events and operation times. Follow-up was 1 year. In total, 190 donors were randomized. Physical function at 1 month follow-up did not significantly differ between groups (estimated difference, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, -4.1 to 7.68; P=0.55). HARP resulted in significantly shorter skin-to-skin time (mean, 159 vs. 188 min; P<0.001), shorter warm ischemia time (2 vs. 5 min; P<0.001) and a lower intraoperative event rate (5% vs. 11%, P=0.117). Length of stay (both 3 days; P=0.135) and postoperative complication rate (8% vs. 8%; P=1.00) were not significantly different. Potential graft-related complications did not significantly differ (6% vs. 13%; P=0.137). Compared with LDN, left-sided HARP leads to similar quality of life, shorter operating time, and warm ischemia time. Therefore, we recommend HARP as a valuable alternative to the laparoscopic approach for left-sided donor nephrectomy.Transplantation 10/2013; 97(2). DOI:10.1097/TP.0b013e3182a902bd · 3.78 Impact Factor