Human fatty acid transport protein 2a/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2a/Acsvl1) has a preference in mediating the channeling of exogenous n-3 fatty acids into phosphatidylinositol.
ABSTRACT The trafficking of fatty acids across the membrane and into downstream metabolic pathways requires their activation to CoA thioesters. Members of the fatty acid transport protein/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase (FATP/Acsvl) family are emerging as key players in the trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into the cell and in intracellular fatty acid homeostasis. We have expressed two naturally occurring splice variants of human FATP2 (Acsvl1) in yeast and 293T-REx cells and addressed their roles in fatty acid transport, activation, and intracellular trafficking. Although both forms (FATP2a (M(r) 70,000) and FATP2b (M(r) 65,000 and lacking exon3, which encodes part of the ATP binding site)) were functional in fatty acid import, only FATP2a had acyl-CoA synthetase activity, with an apparent preference toward very long chain fatty acids. To further address the roles of FATP2a or FATP2b in fatty acid uptake and activation, LC-MS/MS was used to separate and quantify different acyl-CoA species (C14-C24) and to monitor the trafficking of different classes of exogenous fatty acids into intracellular acyl-CoA pools in 293T-REx cells expressing either isoform. The use of stable isotopically labeled fatty acids demonstrated FATP2a is involved in the uptake and activation of exogenous fatty acids, with a preference toward n-3 fatty acids (C18:3 and C22:6). Using the same cells expressing FATP2a or FATP2b, electrospray ionization/MS was used to follow the trafficking of stable isotopically labeled n-3 fatty acids into phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol. The expression of FATP2a resulted in the trafficking of C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA into both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol but with a distinct preference for phosphatidylinositol. Collectively these data demonstrate FATP2a functions in fatty acid transport and activation and provides specificity toward n-3 fatty acids in which the corresponding n-3 acyl-CoAs are preferentially trafficked into acyl-CoA pools destined for phosphatidylinositol incorporation.
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ABSTRACT: Latent infection with dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the major reasons behind the emergence of drug-resistant strains of the pathogen worldwide. In its dormant state, the pathogen accumulates lipid droplets containing triacylglycerol synthesized from fatty acids derived from host lipids. In this study, we show that Rv1206 (FACL6), which is annotated as an acyl-CoA synthetase and resembles eukaryotic fatty acid transport proteins, is able to stimulate fatty acid uptake in E. coli cells. We show that purified FACL6 displays acyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity with a preference towards oleic acid, which is one of the predominant fatty acids in host lipids. Our results indicate that the expression of FACL6 protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is significantly increased during in vitro dormancy. The facl6-deficient Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutant displayed a diminished ability to synthesize acyl-coenzyme A in cell-free extracts. Furthermore, during in vitro dormancy, the mutant synthesized lower levels of intracellular triacylglycerol from exogenous fatty acids. Complementation partially restored the lost function. Our results suggest that FACL6 modulates triacylglycerol accumulation as the pathogen enters dormancy by activating fatty acids.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114877. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114877 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Context: The human adrenal zona fasciculata (ZF) and zona reticularis (ZR) are responsible for the production of cortisol and 19-carbon steroids (often called adrenal androgens), respectively. However, the gene profiles and exact molecular mechanisms leading to the functional phenotype of the ZF and ZR are still not clearly defined. In the present study, we identified the transcripts that are differentially expressed in the ZF and ZR. Objective: To compare the transcriptome profiles of ZF and ZR. Design and Methods: ZF and ZR were microdissected from ten human adrenals. Total RNA was extracted from ten ZF/ZR pairs and hybridized to Illumina microarray chips. The ten most differentially expressed transcripts were studied with quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry was also performed on four zone-specific genes. Results: Microarray results demonstrated that only 347 transcripts out of the 47,231 were significantly different by ≥ 2-fold in the ZF and ZR. ZF had 195 transcripts with ≥ 2-fold increase compared to its paired ZR, whereas ZR was found to have 152 transcripts with ≥ 2-fold higher expression than in ZF. Microarray and qPCR analysis of transcripts encoding steroidogenic enzymes (N=10) demonstrated that only HSD3B2, SULT2A1, AKR1C3 and CYB5 were significantly different. Immunohistochemistry and qPCR studies confirmed that the ZF had increased expression of LEF1 and NOV while ZR showed increased expression of SLC27A2 and TSPAN12. Conclusion: Microarray revealed several novel candidate genes for elucidating the molecular mechanisms governing the ZF and ZR, thereby increasing our understanding of the functional zonation of these two adrenocortical zones.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2013; DOI:10.1210/jc.2013-3198 · 6.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) has been implicated in carcinogenesis and neuronal development. Acyl-CoA synthetases are essential enzymes of lipid metabolism, and ACSL4 is distinguished by its preference for arachidonic acid. Two human ACSL4 isoforms arising from differential splicing were analyzed by ectopic expression in COS cells. We found that the ACSL4_v1 variant localized to the inner side of the plasma membrane including microvilli, and was also present in the cytosol. ACSL4_v2 contains an additional N-terminal hydrophobic region; this isoform was located at the endoplasmic reticulum and on lipid droplets. A third isoform was designed de novo by appending a mitochondrial targeting signal. All three ACSL4 variants showed the same specific enzyme activity. Overexpression of the isoenzymes increased cellular uptake of arachidonate to the same degree, indicating that the metabolic trapping of fatty acids is independent of the subcellular localization. Remarkably, phospholipid metabolism was changed by ACSL4 expression. Labeling with arachidonate showed that the amount of newly synthesized phosphatidylinositol was increased by all three ACSL4 isoenzymes but not by ACSL1. This was dependent on the expression level and the localization of the ACSL4 isoform. We conclude that in our model system exogenous fatty acids are channeled preferentially towards phosphatidylinositol by ACSL4 overexpression. The differential localization of the endogenous isoenzymes may provide compartment specific precursors of this anionic phospholipid important for many signaling processes.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbalip.2013.10.018 · 4.66 Impact Factor