Nanoscale thermal analysis for nanomedicine by nanocalorimetry.
ABSTRACT Microfabricated nanocalorimeters sensitively measure the thermal properties of nanomaterials and can be used for biomedical and in vitro measurements. This review examines the capabilities of nanocalorimeters including specific applications to nanomedicine such as measurements of nanomaterial stability, protein crystallization, ligand-protein binding, phase transitions, phase separations, interfacial reactions, and sorption-desorption phenomena. Widespread adoption of nanotechnology into clinical medicine will require a more complete understanding of the basic properties of nanomaterials, the relationship between nanomaterial processing, and physical properties and a deeper understanding of how nanomaterial physical properties control biological interactions. Nanocalorimetry is suitable where high sensitivity and high-rate thermal and thermodynamic measurements are needed. Because of their small size and rapid measurement speed, nanocalorimeters can be used for single measurements or with high throughput automation.