Resistance of bulky DNA lesions to nucleotide excision repair can result from extensive aromatic lesion–base stacking interactions

Department of Chemistry, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.
Nucleic Acids Research (Impact Factor: 9.11). 07/2011; 39(20):8752-64. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr537
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The molecular basis of resistance to nucleotide excision repair (NER) of certain bulky DNA lesions is poorly understood. To address this issue, we have studied NER in human HeLa cell extracts of two topologically distinct lesions, one derived from benzo[a]pyrene (10R-(+)-cis-anti-B[a]P-N(2)-dG), and one from the food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (C8-dG-PhIP), embedded in either full or 'deletion' duplexes (the partner nucleotide opposite the lesion is missing). All lesions adopt base-displaced intercalated conformations. Both full duplexes are thermodynamically destabilized and are excellent substrates of NER. However, the identical 10R-(+)-cis-anti-B[a]P-N(2)-dG adduct in the deletion duplex dramatically enhances the thermal stability of this duplex, and is completely resistant to NER. Molecular dynamics simulations show that B[a]P lesion-induced distortion/destabilization is compensated by stabilizing aromatic ring system-base stacking interactions. In the C8-dG-PhIP-deletion duplex, the smaller size of the aromatic ring system and the mobile phenyl ring are less stabilizing and yield moderate NER efficiency. Thus, a partner nucleotide opposite the lesion is not an absolute requirement for the successful initiation of NER. Our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that carcinogen-base stacking interactions, which contribute to the local DNA stability, can prevent the successful insertion of an XPC β-hairpin into the duplex and the normal recruitment of other downstream NER factors.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important prokaryotic and eukaryotic defense mechanism that removes a large variety of structurally distinct lesions in cellular DNA. While the proteins involved are completely different, the mode of action of these two repair systems is similar, involving a cut-and-patch mechanism in which an oligonucleotide sequence containing the lesion is excised. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic NER damage-recognition factors have common structural features of β-hairpin intrusion between the two DNA strands at the site of the lesion. In the present study, we explored the hypothesis that this common β-hairpin intrusion motif is mirrored in parallel NER incision efficiencies in the two systems. We have utilized human HeLa cell extracts and the prokaryotic UvrABC proteins to determine their relative NER incision efficiencies. We report here comparisons of relative NER efficiencies with a set of stereoisomeric DNA lesions derived from metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene and equine estrogens in different sequence contexts, utilizing 21 samples. We found a general qualitative trend toward similar relative NER incision efficiencies for ∼65% of these substrates; the other cases deviate mostly by ∼30% or less from a perfect correlation, although several more distant outliers are also evident. This resemblance is consistent with the hypothesis that lesion recognition through β-hairpin insertion, a common feature of the two systems, is facilitated by local thermodynamic destabilization induced by the lesions in both cases. In the case of the UvrABC system, varying the nature of the UvrC endonuclease, while maintaining the same UvrA/B proteins, can markedly affect the relative incision efficiencies. These observations suggest that, in addition to recognition involving the initial modified duplexes, downstream events involving UvrC can also play a role in distinguishing and processing different lesions in prokaryotic NER.
    DNA repair 07/2011; 10(7):684-96. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2011.04.020 · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aristolochic acids I and II are prevalent plant toxicants found in the Aristolochiaceae plant family. Metabolic activation of the aristolochic acids leads to the formation of a cyclic N-hydroxylactam product that can react with the peripheral amino group of purine bases generating bulky DNA adducts. These lesions are mutagenic and established human carcinogens. Interestingly, although AL-dG adducts progressively disappear from the DNA of laboratory animals, AL-dA lesions has lasting persistence in the genome. We describe here NMR structural studies of an undecameric duplex damaged at its center by the presence of an ALII-dA adduct. Our data establish a locally perturbed double helical structure that accommodates the bulky adduct by displacing the counter residue into the major groove and stacking the ALII moiety between flanking bases. The presence of the ALII-dA perturbs the conformation of the 5'-side flanking base pair, but all other pairs of the duplex adopt standard conformations. Thermodynamic studies reveal that the lesion slightly decreases the energy of duplex formation in a sequence-dependent manner. We discuss our results in terms of its implications for the repair of ALII-dA adducts in mammalian cells.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2011; 40(6):2759-70. DOI:10.1093/nar/gkr1094 · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The combined action of oxidative stress and genotoxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons derivatives can lead to cluster-type DNA damage that includes both a modified nucleotide and a bulky lesion. As an example, we investigated the possibility of repair of an AP site located opposite a minor groove-positioned (+)-trans-BPDE-dG or a base-displaced intercalated (+)-cis-BPDE-dG adduct (BP lesion) by a BER system. Oligonucleotides with single uracil residues in certain positions were annealed with complementary oligonucleotides bearing either a cis- or trans-BP adduct. The resulting DNA duplexes contained dU either directly opposite the modified dG or shifted to adjacent 5' (-1) or 3' (+1) positions. Digestion with uracil DNA glycosylase was utilized to generate AP sites which were then hydrolyzed by APE1, and the resulting gaps were processed by DNA polymerase β (Polβ) or λ (Polλ). The AP sites in position -1 can be repaired effectively using APE1 and Polβ or Polλ. The AP sites opposite the BP lesions can be repaired using Polλ in the case of cis- but not the trans-isomeric adduct. The AP sites in position +1 are the most difficult to repair. In the case of the AP site located in position +1, the activity of Polλ does not depend on the stereoisomeric properties of the BP lesions and dCTP is the preferred inserted substrate in both cases. The capability of Polλ to introduce the correct dNTP opposite the cis-BP-dG adduct in gap filling reactions suggests that this polymerase may play a specialized role in the process of repair of these kinds of lesions.
    DNA repair 02/2012; 11(4):367-73. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2012.01.002 · 3.36 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Available from