Spectroscopic properties of neuroleptics: IR and Raman spectra of Risperidone (Risperdal) and of its mono- and di-protonated forms

Department of Chemistry, University of Catania, viale A. Doria 6, Catania 95125, Italy.
Spectrochimica Acta Part A Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy (Impact Factor: 2.13). 07/2011; 81(1):631-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2011.06.065
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Structures and IR and Raman spectra of Risperidone in its neutral, mono- and di-protonated forms were calculated in gas phase by DFT-B3LYP/6-31G* level. Mono-protonation occurs at the nitrogen atom of the piperidine ring, while nitrogen atom of the pyrimidine ring is the preferred site for the second protonation. The lowest-energy structure of the mono-protonated Risperidone is characterized by formation of a strong seven-membered O(pyrimidine ring)⋯(+)H-N(piperidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen-bonded cycle. In the high-energy spectral region (3500-2500 cm(-1)), the bands of the N-H(+) stretches and the changes in wavenumbers and IR intensities of the C-H stretches near to the piperidine nitrogen atom (Bohlmann effect) are potentially useful to discriminate conformations and protonation states. Di-protonated structures can be identified by the presence of an isolated absorption peak located in the low-energy IR region (660-690 cm(-1)), attributed to the out-of-plane N-H(+)(pyrimidine ring) bending deformation. The most intense Raman band of neutral Risperidone placed at ca. 1500 cm(-1), assigned to C=C(pyrimidine ring) stretch + C=N(pyrimidine ring) stretch, can be a useful vibrational marker to distinguish the neutral from the protonated forms.

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    ABSTRACT: The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional π-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the π-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (εCT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (ΔGo), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (μ), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi–Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +NH (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ∼3400 cm−1, the bands of the +NH stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +NH pyrimidine ring in the donor–acceptor interaction.
    Journal of Molecular Structure 03/2013; 1036:464–477. DOI:10.1016/j.molstruc.2012.12.021 · 1.60 Impact Factor