Obesity and metabolic syndrome: Potential benefit from specific nutritional components

Dpto. de Ciencias de Alimentación, Fisiología y Toxicología, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Navarra), Spain.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD (Impact Factor: 3.32). 07/2011; 21 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):B1-15. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2011.05.001
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.

Download full-text


Available from: Maria Angeles Zulet,
  • Source
    • "There is evidence that MetS has become more widespread over the last decade, probably influenced by increases in obesity prevalence [3]. Weight status, together with physical activity and diet, has been reported to be among the main environmental determinants of the MetS [4]. However, there is no universal approach to stop, at least in part, the rise of this condition burden. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study. A cross-sectional survey including 8821 adults was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using a score specifically developed for non-Mediterranean countries (MedTypeDiet score). Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate beta and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Significant associations between the MedTypeDiet score and waist circumference (β=-0.307±0.239cm), systolic blood pressure (β=-0.440±0.428mmHg), and triglycerides (β=-0.021±0.016mmol/L) were observed. After multivariable adjustment, individuals in the highest quartile of the score were less likely to have MetS, central obesity, high triglycerides, and hypertension. Increase of one standard deviation of the score was associated with 7% less odds of having MetS (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). When analyzing the relation of single components of the MedTypeDiet score, wine, dairy products, and the total unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio were associated with MetS. Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet may decrease the risk of MetS also among non-Mediterranean populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 02/2015; 112(6). DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.02.007 · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "While whole milk is a valuable source of nutrition (Mills et al. 2011), there is also a high incidence of allergic symptoms and lactose intolerance in individuals (Haug et al. 2007). The digestion/hydrolysis of milk proteins can yield physiologically important bioactive peptides that have a wide range of biological activities which have been researched extensively in an effort to isolate bioactive ingredients suitable for functional foods (Fox 2001; Madureira et al. 2010; Abete et al. 2011; Phelan and Kerins 2011; Jakubowicz and Froy 2013). These bioactive peptides can be released in vivo by digestion in the gastrointestinal tract or in vitro by fermentation or enzymatic hydrolysis from parent milk proteins (Phelan and Kerins 2011). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bioactive milk peptides are reported to illicit a range of physiological benefits and have been proposed as potential functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory properties of sodium caseinate (NaCAS), its enzyme hydrolysate (EH) and peptide-enriched fractions (5 kDa retentate [R], 1 kDaR and 1 kDa permeate [P]), both in vitro using a Caco-2 cell line, and also ex vivo using a porcine colonic tissue explant system. Caco-2 cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and co-treated with casein hydrolysates for 24 h. Following this, interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the supernatant were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Porcine colonic tissue was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and co-treated with casein hydrolysates for 3 h. The expression of a panel of inflammatory cytokines was measured using qPCR. While dexamethasone reduced the IL-8 concentration by 41.6%, the 1 kDaR and 1 kDaP fractions reduced IL-8 by 68.7% and 66.1%, respectively, relative to TNFα-stimulated Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). In the ex vivo system, only the 1 kDaR fraction elicited a decrease in IL1-α, IL1-β, IL-8, TGF-β and IL-10 expression (P < 0.05). This study provides evidence that the bioactive peptides present in the 1 kDaR fraction of the NaCAS hydrolysate possess anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and ex vivo. Further in vivo analysis of the anti-inflammatory properties of the 1 kDaR is proposed.
    Food Science & Nutrition 11/2014; 2(6):712. DOI:10.1002/fsn3.153
  • Source
    • "Metabolic syndrome (MS) represents a cluster of conditions (hyperglycemia/insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and abdominal obesity) that identifies subjects at high risk for cardiovascular (CV) diseases.12 The exact etiology of MS remains unclear; nevertheless, genetic, metabolic and environmental factors, including diet composition, which strictly modulates metabolic status,345 contribute to the onset of MS. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Consuming a high-fructose diet induces metabolic syndrome (MS)-like features, including endothelial dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction is an early manifestation of endothelial dysfunction and systemic vascular disease. Because mineral deficiency intensifies the deleterious effects of fructose consumption and mineral ingestion is protective against MS, we aimed to characterize the effects of 8 weeks of natural mineral-rich water consumption on the structural organization and expression of vascular growth factors and receptors on the corpus cavernosum (CC) in 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (FRUCT). Differences were not observed in the organization of the CC either on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or the components of the angiopoietins/Tie2 system. However, opposing expression patterns were observed for VEGF receptors (an increase and a decrease for VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, respectively) in FRUCT animals, with these patterns being strengthened by mineral-rich water ingestion. Mineral-rich water ingestion (FRUCTMIN) increased the proportion of smooth muscle cells compared with FRUCT rats and induced an upregulatory tendency of sirtuin 1 expression compared with the control and FRUCT groups. Western blot results were consistent with the dual immunofluorescence evaluation. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and plasma testosterone levels were similar among the experimental groups, although a tendency for an increase in the former was observed in the FRUCTMIN group. The mineral-rich water-treated rats presented changes similar to those observed in rats treated with MS-protective polyphenol-rich beverages or subjected to energy restriction, which led us to hypothesize that the effects of mineral-rich water consumption may be more vast than those directly observed in this study.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 07/2014; 16(4):631-8. DOI:10.4103/1008-682X.122869 · 2.60 Impact Factor
Show more