The induction of epigenetic regulation of PROS1 gene in lung fibroblasts by gold nanoparticles and implications for potential lung injury.
ABSTRACT Advances in nanotechnology have given rise to the rapid development of novel applications in biomedicine. However, our understanding in the risks and health safety of nanomaterials is still not complete and various investigations are ongoing. Here, we show that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) significantly altered the expression of 19 genes in human fetal lung fibroblasts (using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Array). Among the differentially expressed genes, up-regulation of microRNA-155 (miR-155) was observed concomitant with down-regulation of the PROS1 gene. Silencing of miR-155 established PROS1 as its possible target gene. DNA methylation profiling analysis of the PROS1 gene revealed no changes in the methylation status of this gene in AuNP-treated fibroblasts. At the ultrastructural level, chromatin condensation and reorganization was observed in the nucleus of fibroblasts exposed to AuNPs. The findings provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying toxicity of AuNPs and their impact on epigenetic processes.
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ABSTRACT: Biomedical nanotechnology is an evolving field having enormous potential to positively impact the health care system. Important biomedical applications of nanotechnology that may have potential clinical applications include targeted drug delivery, detection/diagnosis and imaging. Basic understanding of how nanomaterials, the building blocks of nanotechnology, interact with the cells and their biological consequences are beginning to evolve. Noble metal nanoparticles such as gold, silver and platinum are particularly interesting due to their size and shape dependent unique optoelectronic properties. These noble metal nanoparticles, particularly of gold, have elicited a lot of interest for important biomedical applications because of their ease of synthesis, characterization and surface functionalization. Furthermore, recent investigations are demonstrating another promising application of these nanomaterials as self-therapeutics. To realize the potential promise of these unique inorganic nanomaterials for future clinical translation, it is of utmost importance to understand a few critical parameters; (i) how these nanomaterials interact with the cells at the molecular level; (ii) how their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics influenced by their surface and routes of administration; (iii) mechanism of their detoxification and clearance and (iv) their therapeutic efficacy in appropriate disease model. Thus in this critical review, we will discuss the various clinical applications of gold, silver and platinum nanoparticles with relevance to above parameters. We will also mention various routes of synthesis of these noble metal nanoparticles. However, before we discuss present research, we will also look into the past. We need to understand the discoveries made before us in order to further our knowledge and technological development (318 references).Chemical Society Reviews 03/2012; 41(7):2943-70. · 24.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown as an important regulator in the pathologies of acute lung injury (ALI). However, the potential effect of miRNA-based therapeutic studies in ALI remains poorly understood. We assessed the effect of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) against miR-155 on the development of ALI using a murine ALI model. We found that miR-155 ASO treatment could enhance the recovery of ALI as evidenced by accelerated body weight back, reduced level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and proinflammatory cytokines, and reduced number of BAL cells. Adoptive cell transfer assay in RAG1(-/-) mice showed that CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) mediated the enhanced recovery of ALI. Mechanistic evidence showed that enhanced expansion of Tregs in vivo, dominantly induced by IL-10-secreting M2-like macrophages, was critical for their elevated proportion in miR-155 ASO-treated ALI mice. Finally, we report that C/EBPβ, a target molecule of miR-155, was upregulated and associated with IL-10 secretion and M2-like phenotype of macrophages. These data provided a previously unknown mechanism for miRNA-based therapy against ALI, which could ultimately aid the understanding of recovery of ALI and the development of new therapeutic strategies against clinical inflammatory lung disease.The Journal of Immunology 03/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor