Combined delivery of dexamethasone and plasmid DNA in an animal model of LPS-induced acute lung injury.
ABSTRACT Dexamethasone was conjugated to low molecular weight polyethylenimine (2kDa, PEI2k). Dexamethasone conjugated PEI2k (PEI2k-Dexa) was evaluated as a combined delivery carrier of dexamethasone and plasmid DNA (pDNA) in an animal model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI). In vitro transfection of L2 lung epithelial cells, PEI2k-Dexa exhibited higher transfection efficiency than PEI2k or a simple mixture of PEI2k and dexamethasone. In addition, the PEI2k-Dexa/pβ-Luc complexes reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS activated Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. The anti-inflammatory effect of PEI2k-Dexa was higher than that of controls. The PEI2k-Dexa/pβ-Luc complexes were administered to mice via intratracheal injection. PEI2k-Dexa had higher pDNA delivery efficiency than PEI2k in the lung and decreased TNF-α and IL-6 in the lung homogenates and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid compared with the controls. Furthermore, total protein and immunoglobulin M (IgM) concentrations in BAL fluid were reduced by the PEI2k-Dexa/pβ-Luc complexes. The intratracheal injection of the PEI2k-Dexa/pcDNA-EGFP complexes in the ALI model showed higher EGFP expression compared with PEI2k. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining showed that PEI2k-Dexa reduced inflammatory reaction in the lung. Therefore, PEI2k-Dexa may be useful for combination gene and drug therapy for ALI.
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ABSTRACT: Most patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome of septic and nonseptic nature require assisted ventilation with positive pressure, which at suboptimal range may further exacerbate lung dysfunction. Previous studies described enhancement of agonist-induced Rho GTPase signaling and endothelial cell (EC) permeability in EC cultures exposed to pathologically relevant cyclic stretch (CS) magnitudes. This study examined a role of pathologic CS in modulation of pulmonary EC permeability caused by IL-6, a cytokine increased in sepsis and acting in a Rho-independent manner. IL-6 increased EC permeability, which was associated with activation of Jak/signal transducers and activators of transcription, p38 MAP kinase, and NF-κB signaling and was augmented by EC exposure to 18% CS. Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 suppressed the synergistic effect of 18% CS on IL-6-induced EC monolayer disruption but did not alter the IL-6 effects on static EC culture. 18% CS also increased IL-6-induced ICAM-1 expression by pulmonary EC and neutrophil adhesion, which was attenuated by Y-27632. Intratracheal IL-6 administration in C57BL/6J mice increased protein content and cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These changes were augmented by high tidal volume mechanical ventilation (HTV; 30 ml/kg, 4 h). Intravenous injection of Y-27632 suppressed IL6/HTV-induced lung injury. In conclusion, this study proposes a novel mechanism contributing to two-hit model of ALI: in addition to synergistic effects on Rho-dependent endothelial hyper-permeability triggered by thrombin, TNFα, LPS, or other agonists, ventilator-induced lung injury-relevant CS may also exacerbate Rho-independent mechanisms of EC permeability induced by other inflammatory mediators such as IL-6 via mechanisms involving Rho activity.AJP Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 02/2012; 302(9):L965-75. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Animal model is of importance to further elucidate the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We envisioned a possibility that there might be the differences in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung inflammation by the trans-oral and trans-tracheal intratracheal instillations. We compared the LPS-induced early inflammatory responses by these two methods. The evaluative system included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid biochemical analysis and differential cell counting, lung wet/dry weight ratio and lung histology. In vitro studies were performed on human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and alveolar Type II epithelial cell line A549 stimulated with LPS. Both interleukin (IL)-8 release in the BAL fluid and IL-8 secretions from NCI-H292 and A549 cells were measured. We found that the trans-tracheal intratracheal instillation promoted the LPS-induced cell injury, neutrophil infiltration, and pulmonary edema compared to the trans-oral one. The LPS-induced pathological changes by the trans-oral intratracheal instillation were characterized by pulmonary interstitial edema, but the trans-tracheal intratracheal instillation was exudative pulmonary edema. More IL-8 is produced from A549 cells than from NCI-H292 cells under the treatment of LPS. The increased IL-8 release in the BAL fluid and enhanced inflammatory responses caused by LPS may be due to more LPS delivered into the alveolar spaces by the trans-tracheal intratracheal instillation compared to the trans-oral one. The trans-tracheal intratracheal instillation is proved to be more suitable to establish the murine model of ALI than the trans-oral one and helpful to further elucidate the pathogenesis of ALI/ARDS.The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 07/2012; 295(9):1513-9. · 1.34 Impact Factor