Connexin43 phosphorylation and cytoprotection in the heart.
ABSTRACT The fundamental role played by connexins including connexin43 (Cx43) in forming intercellular communication channels (gap junctions), ensuring electrical and metabolic coupling between cells, has long been recognized and extensively investigated. There is also increasing recognition that Cx43, and other connexins, have additional roles, such as the ability to regulate cell proliferation, migration, and cytoprotection. Multiple phosphorylation sites, targets of different signaling pathways, are present at the regulatory, C-terminal domain of Cx43, and contribute to constitutive as well as transient phosphorylation Cx43 patterns, responding to ever-changing environmental stimuli and corresponding cellular needs. The present paper will focus on Cx43 in the heart, and provide an overview of the emerging recognition of a relationship between Cx43, its phosphorylation pattern, and development of resistance to injury. We will also review our recent work regarding the role of an enhanced phosphorylation state of Cx43 in cardioprotection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Communicating junctions, composition, structure and characteristics.
- Cell 05/2000; 101(2):115-8. · 31.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease with complex clinical features. Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) maps to the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-q27) and is linked strongly to the markers D6S305 and D6S253; the former is deleted in one Japanese AR-JP patient. By positional cloning within this microdeletion, we have now isolated a complementary DNA done of 2,960 base pairs with a 1,395-base-pair open reading frame, encoding a protein of 465 amino acids with moderate similarity to ubiquitin at the amino terminus and a RING-finger motif at the carboxy terminus. The gene spans more than 500 kilobases and has 12 exons, five of which (exons 3-7) are deleted in the patient. Four other AR-JP patients from three unrelated families have a deletion affecting exon 4 alone. A 4.5-kilobase transcript that is expressed in many human tissues but is abundant in the brain, including the substantia nigra, is shorter in brain tissue from one of the groups of exon-4-deleted patients. Mutations in the newly identified gene appear to be responsible for the pathogenesis of AR-JP, and we have therefore named the protein product 'Parkin'.Nature 05/1998; 392(6676):605-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We performed a clinical genetic analysis of a kindred originating in the town of Contursi in Salerno province, Italy, in which 60 individuals in 5 generations are known to have had Parkinson's disease (PD). Two previously reported autopsy cases showed typical PD with Lewy bodies. The inheritance pattern is apparently autosomally dominant with a segregation ratio of 40.1% for kindred members aged 50 years and older. The mean age at PD onset is 45.6 years (standard deviation, 13.48; range, 20-85) with a mean course to death of 9.2 years (standard deviation, 4.87; range, 2-20). Otherwise, clinical characteristics of PD in the kindred, including variance in onset age and incidence of tremor and levodopa responsiveness, are similar to those of PD in the community. The presence of tremor tended to be concordant in affected parent-child pairs, but there was no parent-child correlation for age at onset or intrasibship clustering of tremor or onset age. A suggestion of anticipation disappeared after adjustment for age-related ascertainment bias. The findings show that a presumably single mutation can produce a heterogeneous PD phenotype, even among siblings. This is consistent with the hypothesis that PD in the community may in fact be caused by such a mutation, but one producing a lower penetrance and older age at onset than those in this kindred.Annals of Neurology 12/1996; 40(5):767-75. · 11.19 Impact Factor