Cathelicidin signaling via the Toll-like receptor protects against colitis in mice.
ABSTRACT Cathelicidin (encoded by Camp) is an antimicrobial peptide in the innate immune system. We examined whether macrophages express cathelicidin in colons of mice with experimental colitis and patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and we investigated its signaling mechanisms.
Quantitative, real-time, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR), bacterial 16S PCR, immunofluorescence, and small interfering RNA (siRNA) analyses were performed. Colitis was induced in mice using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS); levels of cathelicidin were measured in human primary monocytes.
Expression of cathelicidin increased in the inflamed colonic mucosa of mice with DSS-induced colitis compared with controls. Cathelicidin expression localized to mucosal macrophages in inflamed colon tissues of patients and mice. Exposure of human primary monocytes to Escherichia coli DNA induced expression of Camp messenger RNA, which required signaling by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK); expression was reduced by siRNAs against Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 and MyD88. Intracolonic administration of bacterial DNA to wild-type mice induced expression of cathelicidin in colons of control mice and mice with DSS-induced colitis. Colon expression of cathelicidin was significantly reduced in TLR9(-/-) mice with DSS-induced colitis. Compared with wild-type mice, Camp(-/-) mice developed a more severe form of DSS-induced colitis, particularly after intracolonic administration of E coli DNA. Expression of cathelicidin from bone marrow-derived immune cells regulated DSS induction of colitis in transplantation studies in mice.
Cathelicidin protects against induction of colitis in mice. Increased expression of cathelicidin in monocytes and experimental models of colitis involves activation of TLR9-ERK signaling by bacterial DNA. This pathway might be involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.
Article: Sodium butyrate up-regulates cathelicidin gene expression via activator protein-1 and histone acetylation at the promoter region in a human lung epithelial cell line, EBC-1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial protein cathelicidin is considered to play an important role in the defense mechanisms against bacterial infection. Recent studies show that sodium butyrate induces cathelicidin gene expression in human colonic, gastric and hepatic cells. However, little is known about the precise regulatory mechanisms underlying sodium butyrate-induced cathelicidin gene expression. In this study, we examined the regulatory mechanisms involved in sodium butyrate-induced cathelicidin gene expression using a human lung epithelial cell line, EBC-1. Our results indicate that sodium butyrate induces both cathelicidin mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, deletion or mutation of a putative activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site in the cathelicidin gene promoter abrogated the response to sodium butyrate stimulation. Three different mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase inhibitors suppressed sodium butyrate-induced transactivation of the cathelicidin promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) showed that nuclear extracts prepared from sodium butyrate-stimulated EBC-1 cells generated specific binding to probe including a putative AP-1 binding site in the cathelicidin gene promoter. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated that sodium butyrate augmented histone acetylation of the cathelicidin promoter in EBC-1 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that AP-1 and histone acetylation of the cathelicidin promoter play a critical role in the regulation of inducible cathelicidin gene expression in EBC-1 cells stimulated with sodium butyrate.Molecular Immunology 06/2006; 43(12):1972-81. · 2.90 Impact Factor
Article: Microbial induction of inflammatory bowel disease associated gene TL1A (TNFSF15) in antigen presenting cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: TL1A is a member of the TNF superfamily and its expression is increased in the mucosa of inflammatory bowel disease patients. Neutralizing anti-mouse TL1A Ab attenuates chronic colitis in two T-cell driven murine models, suggesting that TL1A is a central modulator of gut mucosal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. We showed previously that TL1A is induced by immune complexes via the Fc gamma R signaling pathway. In this study, we report that multiple bacteria, including gram negative organisms (E. coli, E. coli Nissle 1917, Salmonella typhimurium), gram positive organisms (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis), partial anaerobes (Campylobacter jejuni), and obligate anaerobes (Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bifidobacterium breve, Clostridium A4) activate TL1A expression in human APC, including monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Bacterially induced TL1A mRNA expression correlates with the detection of TL1A protein levels. TL1A induced by bacteria is mediated in part by the TLR signaling pathway and inhibited by downstream blockade of p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB activation. Microbial induction of TL1A production by human APC potentiated CD4(+) T-cell effector function by augmenting IFN-gamma production. Our findings suggest a role for TL1A in pro-inflammatory APC-T cell interactions and implicate TL1A in host responses to enteric microorganisms.European Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 39(11):3239-50. · 5.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goals of this study were to examine the expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in the corneal epithelium during wound healing and to investigate whether LL-37 stimulates human corneal epithelial cell (HCEC) migration, proliferation, and cytokine production. Expression of LL-37 was determined by RT-PCR and immunostaining in tissue sections and HCECs scraped from corneas before (original) and after (regrown) re-epithelialization. The antimicrobial activity of LL-37 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) was determined in the presence of NaCl and tears. Blind-well chamber assays were performed to study the effect of LL-37 on migration. Proliferation was determined using calcein-AM, and cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay. ELISA was performed to assess the ability of LL-37 to stimulate HCEC cytokine secretion. LL-37 peptide was present throughout the corneal epithelium (n=4). All original corneal epithelial samples expressed a low level of LL-37 (n=10). Regrown epithelial samples collected 24 (n=3 of 5) or 48 (n=4 of 5) hours after wounding showed upregulated expression of LL-37. LL-37 killed PA in the presence of NaCl (EC50=10.3+/-2.5 microg/mL) and retained its activity in tears (n=3). LL-37 induced HCEC migration (n=5) and secretion of IL-8, IL-6, IL-1beta, and TNF-alpha (2- to 23-fold, n=4-7). Inhibitor studies indicated that LL-37's effects are mediated through multiple pathways involving a G protein-coupled receptor (formyl peptide receptor-like 1 in migration) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (n=2 to 5). LL-37 did not stimulate HCEC proliferation (n=3) and high concentrations (>10 microg/mL) were cytotoxic (n=3). LL-37 expression is upregulated in regenerating human corneal epithelium, has antibacterial activity against ocular pathogens under physiologically relevant conditions, and stimulates HCEC migration and cytokine production. These findings suggest that LL-37 acts as a multifunctional mediator that helps protect the cornea from infection and modulates wound healing.Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 06/2006; 47(6):2369-80. · 3.60 Impact Factor