Glycyrrhizin as antiviral agent against Hepatitis C Virus

Division of Molecular Medicine, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.
Journal of Translational Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.93). 07/2011; 9(1, article 112):112. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-9-112
Source: PubMed


Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic liver diseases which can lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The presently available treatment with interferon plus ribavirin, has limited benefits due to adverse side effects such as anemia, depression, fatigue, and "flu-like" symptoms. Herbal plants have been used for centuries against different diseases including viral diseases and have become a major source of new compounds to treat bacterial and viral diseases.
The present study was design to study the antiviral effect of Glycyrrhizin (GL) against HCV. For this purpose, HCV infected liver cells were treated with GL at non toxic doses and HCV titer was measured by Quantitative real time RT-PCR.
Our results demonstrated that GL inhibit HCV titer in a dose dependent manner and resulted in 50% reduction of HCV at a concentration of 14 ± 2 μg. Comparative studies were made with interferon alpha to investigate synergistic effects, if any, between antiviral compound and interferon alpha 2a. Our data showed that GL exhibited synergistic effect when combined with interferon. Moreover, these results were verified by transiently transfecting the liver cells with HCV 3a core plasmid. The results proved that GL dose dependently inhibit the expression of HCV 3a core gene both at mRNA and protein levels while the GAPDH remained constant.
Our results suggest that GL inhibit HCV full length viral particles and HCV core gene expression or function in a dose dependent manner and had synergistic effect with interferon. In future, GL along with interferon will be better option to treat HCV infection.

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    • "The development of antibiotic resistance is a multifactorial. To overcome the problem of antibiotic resistance, medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative treatments for different viral and bacterial diseases [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] . The current study made an attempt to find out novel anti-bacterial agents against multidrug resistant S. aureus from medicinal plant extracts. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine resistance patterns of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated from different areas of Pakistan and to identify antimicrobial agents against multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. Methods : A total of 67 samples (sewerage, nasal and milk) were collected from different farm areas of Pakistan to identify local strains of S. aureus . Sixteen out of 67 samples were positive for S. aureus . Only 6 out of 16 S. aureus strains showed resistance to antibiotics. Then the antibacterial effect of 29 medicinal plants was evaluated on these S. aureus isolates and a standard S. aureus strain ATCC 25923. The solvents used for the extraction of plants were acetone, dimethyl sulfoxide and methanol. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed using agar disc diffusion method. Moreover, minimum inhibitory concentration of effective medicinal plant extracts was identified through micro-dilution method to find out their 50% inhibitory concentration. Results: Plant extracts of 5 medicinal plants (Psidium guajava, Nigella sativa, Piper nigrum, Valeriana jatamansi , and Cucurbita pepo) exhibited antibacterial activity against locally isolated multidrug resistant strains of S. aureus . The minimum inhibitory concentration of these extracts was ranged from 0.328 to 5.000 mg/mL. Conclusions: Plant extracts of Psidium guajava , Piper nigrum seed, Valeriana jatamansi , Cucurbita pepo and Nigella sativa showed significant in vitro antibacterial activity and thus, such findings may serve as valuable contribution in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents against multi drug resistant strains of S. aureus.
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    • "GA was found to inhibit the replication of the SARS-associated virus [51]. In the treatment of HCV (hepatitis C virus) infection, GA can inhibit HCV full-length viral particles and HCV core gene expression or function in a dose-dependent manner and have a synergistic effect with interferon [52]. GA is also involved in biliary secretion and excretion. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a triterpene glycoside found in the roots of licorice plants (Glycyrrhiza glabra). GA is the most important active ingredient in the licorice root, and possesses a wide range of pharmacological and biological activities. GA coupled with glycyrrhetinic acid and 18-beta-glycyrrhetic acid was developed in China or Japan as an anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antiallergic drug for liver disease. This review summarizes the current biological activities of GA and its medical applications in liver diseases. The pharmacological actions of GA include inhibition of hepatic apoptosis and necrosis; anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory actions; antiviral effects; and antitumor effects. This paper will be a useful reference for physicians and biologists researching GA and will open the door to novel agents in drug discovery and development from Chinese herbs. With additional research, GA may be more widely used in the treatment of liver diseases or other conditions.
    BioMed Research International 05/2014; 2014:872139. DOI:10.1155/2014/872139 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "E2 is highly glycosylated with most of the glycosylation sites well conserved [12]. In addition to these conserved residues, E2 has hypervariable regions which vary up to 80% among HCV of different genotypes and even between the subtypes of same genotype [13]. However, E2 protein interacts with DC-SIGN and L-SIGN (mannose binding proteins) but detailed mechanism of viral entry is unclear. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a universal health issue and a significant risk factor leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV has infected approximately 170 million individuals worldwide. It is a member of Flaviviridae with positive sense RNA genome. In the absence of any effective vaccine against HCV, pegylated interferon with ribavirin is the standard of treatment against HCV infection. In this study, sequence and structural analysis of envelope 2 (E2) protein was performed which was isolated from patients of HCV genotype 3a in Pakistan. Then, epitopes were predicted which were specific for both B-cells and T-cells. Later, conservancy of epitopes was checked with the HCV 3a and 1a sequences from different countries. A total of 6 conserved epitopes were found from extra-membranous regions of E2 protein. Presence of conserved epitopes in E2 protein generates the possibility that these epitopes can be used to elicit the immune response against HCV.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 05/2014; 12(12):115. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-12-115 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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