Effects of Tai Chi exercise on physical and psychological health of older people.
ABSTRACT Tai Chi is a traditional Chinese form of conditioning exercise derived from martial arts and rooted in eastern philosophy and Chinese Medicine. Based on the inter-relatedness of mind, body and spirit this form of exercise focuses on producing an inner calmness which is thought to have both physical and psychological therapeutic value. This article provides a brief overview of selected current evidence examining the relationship between Tai Chi and physical, neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes in older people. This is an emerging and growing area of research and improvements have often been reported in health functioning, physical and emotional health, reducing falls, fear of falling and risk of falls, and possibly enhancing cardiovascular functioning in older adults although the effects on bone density, cognitive and immunological functioning are less clear. Results overall are inconsistent and health improvements have not been evident in all studies. Tai Chi is becoming increasingly popular in practice, and more recent evidence is emerging which is based on experimental and longitudinal designs, although many of the proposed benefits of Tai Chi are yet to be validated in large, randomised controlled trials.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Due to the close association with physical and psychological health and quality of life, mood disorders, especially depressive symptoms, are an important global public-health issue. It is hypothesized that long-term physical training and mood adjustment may have a beneficial effect on the prevention of the onset of depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between long-term Tai Chi training and depressive symptoms among Tai Chi practitioners. Methods: This study analyzed a cross-sectional survey including 529 Japanese Tai Chi practitioners. Tai Chi training information, including total training time and a Tai Chi grade, was assessed using a structured questionnaire, and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for subjects aged >= 65 and the 20-item Self-rating Depressive Scale (SDS) for subjects aged < 65 with cut-off points: GDS >= Sand SDS >= 11. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 15.9%. After adjustments for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios of having depressive symptoms by increasing levels of Tai Chi training time were 1.00, 0.64 (0.37-1.11), 0.65 (0.37-1.13), 0.34 (0.18-0.65) (P for trend <001), Limitations: This is a cross-sectional study, and not for making a clinical diagnosis of depressive symptoms. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated that long-term Tai Chi training is independently related to a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms. These results suggest that long-term Tai Chi training may have a beneficial effect on the prevention of depressive symptoms. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reservedJournal of Affective Disorders 07/2014; 169C:36-39. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.07.029 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of using tai chi for treating major depressive disorder. Thirty-nine Chinese Americans with major depressive disorder were randomized into a 12-wk tai chi intervention or a waitlisted control group in a 2:1 ratio. The key outcome measurement was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Positive response was defined as a decrease of 50% or more on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and remission was defined as a score of 7 or lower on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Of the participants (n = 39), 77% were women, and mean (SD) age was 55 (10) years. There were 26 (67%) participants in the tai chi intervention group and 13 (33%) in the control group. Of the participants in the tai chi group, 73% completed the intervention; no adverse events were reported. We observed trends toward improvement in the tai chi intervention group, compared with the control group, in positive treatment-response rate (24% vs. 0%) and remission rate (19% vs. 0%), although the differences in our small sample did not reach statistical significance. A randomized controlled trial of tai chi is feasible and safe in Chinese American patients with major depressive disorder. These promising pilot study results inform the design of a more definitive trial.American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation / Association of Academic Physiatrists 07/2012; 91(10):863-70. DOI:10.1097/PHM.0b013e31825f1a67 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the large number of articles published in the medical literature advocating the use of Tai Ji Quan for a wide variety of health-related outcomes, there has been little systematic broad-scale implementation of these programs. It may be argued that the lack of funding from organizations capable of implementing and overseeing large-scale programs, such as governmental health agencies or national non-governmental organizations concerned with healthcare for older adults, is to blame. However, the evidence these organizations need to justify underwriting such programs is in short supply because of conflicting priorities and standards related to determining the efficacy and effectiveness of Tai Ji Quan. Establishing efficacy through acceptable designs such as randomized controlled trials involves strict protocols to ensure meaningful internal validity but different approaches are needed to demonstrate meaningful effectiveness (external validity) outside the study setting. By examining the quality, quantity, and relative proportions of the randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and dissemination studies reported in the medical literature, this paper highlights the disparity in emphasis between efficacy and effectiveness research that has impeded the development of a cohesive literature on Tai Ji Quan and concludes that until more researchers develop a systematic, long-range commitment to investigating its health-related benefits, the research related will remain fractured and sporadic, limiting the incentive of large funding agencies to support its wide-spread use.Journal of Sport and Health Science 01/2013; 3(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jshs.2013.10.005 · 1.23 Impact Factor