Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis and prognostic significance of TRPS-1, a new GATA transcription factor family member, in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT The trichorhinophalangeal syndrome 1 (TRPS-1) gene is a novel GATA transcription factor family member. Previously, using a gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry (IHC) screen, we identified TRPS-1 as a highly prevalent gene in breast cancer (BC), expressed in >90% of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)(+) and ERα(-) BC subtypes. TRPS-1 was also shown to be expressed in prostate cancer where it was shown to play a proapoptotic function during androgen withdrawal possibly through regulating antioxidant metabolism. The role of TRPS-1 and its prognostic significance in hormone-dependent and hormone-independent BC however is not known. In this study, we developed a new quantitative IHC (qIHC) method to further study TRPS-1 as a marker and possible prognostic indicator in BC. By using this method, a quantitative parameter for TRPS-1 expression called a quick score (QS) was derived from the measured labeling index and mean optical density after IHC and applied to a set of 152 stage II/III BC patients from 1993 to 2006 who did not receive preoperative chemotherapy. Associations between QS and tumor characteristics were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A wide range of TRPS-1 QS was found among the sample set with higher TRPS-1 QS significantly associated with tumor ERα (p = 0.023 for QS and p = 0.028 for Allred score), progesterone receptor (p = 0.009), and GATA-3 (p < 0.0001). TRPS-1 QS was also positively associated with HER2 status (p = 0.026). Further analysis of different ductal structures in ten BC cases revealed that TRPS-1 expression was expressed at low levels in the remaining normal ducts and in areas of usual ductal hyperplasia but showed marked increase in expression in ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive carcinoma lesions in the tissue. An analysis of TRPS-1 expression in association with overall survival in the 152 stage II/III sample set also revealed that TRPS-1 QS (≥4.0) was significantly associated with improved survival (p = 0.0165). Patients with TRPS-1 QS <4 had a hazard ratio of 2 (p = 0.019) after univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. In summary, this new qIHC approach was found to reveal critical differences in TRPS-1 expression in primary BC samples and found that it is a promising prognostic marker that should be further evaluated as a possible tumor suppressor gene facilitating improved survival in different subtypes of BC.
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ABSTRACT: Expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) as determined by immunohistochemistry of tumor tissue is currently the most clinically useful test to predict hormone responsiveness of breast cancer. Thirty percent of ERalpha-positive breast cancers do not respond to hormonal therapy. GATA-3 is a transcription factor that is expressed in association with ERalpha and there is evidence that GATA factors influence response to estrogen. In this pilot study, we investigated whether GATA-3 expression is associated with hormone response in breast cancer. Breast cancer tissue was stained for GATA-3 expression by immunohistochemistry in ERalpha-positive cancers from 28 patients, 14 of whom were defined as hormone unresponsive (cases) and 14 of whom were age-matched controls with hormone-responsive, ERalpha-positive cancers (controls). Comparing cases and controls, there were no differences in expression of ERalpha; progesterone receptor, ErbB2; or tumor grade. Using 20% nuclear staining to characterize tumors as GATA-3 positive or GATA-3 negative, 6 of 14 (43%) cancers in the hormone-unresponsive group and none of the controls were classified as GATA-3 negative (odds ratio, 8.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-infinity; p = 0.031). Using different cut points to characterize GATA-3 positivity yielded very similar results, indicating a positive association between lack of GATA-3 expression and lack of response to hormonal therapy. The study suggests that analyzing ERalpha-positive breast tumors for GATA-3 using immunohistochemistry might improve prediction of hormone responsiveness. The association between GATA-3 expression and hormone response suggests that GATA-3 may play a role in mechanisms controlling response to estrogen.Journal of the American College of Surgeons 06/2005; 200(5):705-10. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deletion or mutation of the TRPS1 gene leads to the tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndromes (TRPS). The gene encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor, which contains two regions with basic amino acids LRRRRG (NLS1) and RRRTRKR (NLS2) that resemble potential nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Here, we describe the identification of novel TRPS1 mutations in patients with TRPS type I (TRPS I) and provide, by reconstructing the mutant TRPS1 proteins and subcellular localization studies, evidence that only the RRRTRKR motif functions as a NLS. Two different mutations affect the last arginine residue of this motif. The exchanges of arginine to histidine, found in two unrelated patients with TRPS I, as well as the exchange of arginine to cysteine, found in another unrelated patient, prevent the translocation of the mutant TRPS1 to the nucleus when ectopically expressed in COS 7 cells. In contrast, a mutant that lacks the conserved GATA-type zinc-finger domain and most of the LRRRRG motif is able to enter the nucleus.European Journal of HumanGenetics 03/2004; 12(2):121-6. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The long arm of chromosome 8 is one of the most common regions of amplification in cancers of several organs, especially carcinomas of the breast and prostate. TRPS1, MYC and EIF3S3 genes are located in one of the minimal regions of amplification, 8q23-q24, and have been suggested to be the target genes of the amplification. Here, our goal was to study copy number and expression of the three genes in order to investigate the significance of the genes in breast and prostate cancer. By using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), we first found that TRPS1 and EIF3S3 were amplified together in about one-third of hormone-refractory prostate carcinomas. Next, we analysed the mRNA expression of the three genes by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and the gene copy number by FISH in six breast and five prostate cancer cell lines. Breast cancer cell line, SK-Br-3, which contained the highest copy number of all three genes, showed overexpression of only EIF3S3. Finally, the expression levels of TRPS1, EIF3S3 and MYC were measured in freshly frozen clinical samples of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), as well as untreated and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma. The TRPS1 and MYC expression levels were similar in all prostate tumour groups, whereas EIF3S3 expression was higher (P=0.029) in prostate carcinomas compared to BPH. The data suggest that the expression of EIF3S3 is increased in prostate cancer, and that one of the mechanisms underlying the overexpression is the amplification of the gene.British Journal of Cancer 04/2004; 90(5):1041-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor