O-glucose trisaccharide is present at high but variable stoichiometry at multiple sites on mouse Notch1
ABSTRACT Notch activity is regulated by both O-fucosylation and O-glucosylation, and Notch receptors contain multiple predicted sites for both. Here we examine the occupancy of the predicted O-glucose sites on mouse Notch1 (mN1) using the consensus sequence C(1)XSXPC(2). We show that all of the predicted sites are modified, although the efficiency of modifying O-glucose sites is site- and cell type-dependent. For instance, although most sites are modified at high stoichiometries, the site at EGF 27 is only partially glucosylated, and the occupancy of the site at EGF 4 varies with cell type. O-Glucose is also found at a novel, non-traditional consensus site at EGF 9. Based on this finding, we propose a revision of the consensus sequence for O-glucosylation to allow alanine N-terminal to cysteine 2: C(1)XSX(A/P)C(2). We also show through biochemical and mass spectral analyses that serine is the only hydroxyamino acid that is modified with O-glucose on EGF repeats. The O-glucose at all sites is efficiently elongated to the trisaccharide Xyl-Xyl-Glc. To establish the functional importance of individual O-glucose sites in mN1, we used a cell-based signaling assay. Elimination of most individual sites shows little or no effect on mN1 activation, suggesting that the major effects of O-glucose are mediated by modification of multiple sites. Interestingly, elimination of the site in EGF 28, found in the Abruptex region of Notch, does significantly reduce activity. These results demonstrate that, like O-fucose, the O-glucose modifications of EGF repeats occur extensively on mN1, and they play important roles in Notch function.
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ABSTRACT: The Notch family of receptors plays essential roles in many phases of development, and dysregulation of Notch activity is increasingly recognized as a player in many diseases. O-Glycosylation of the Notch extracellular domain is essential for Notch activity, and tissue-specific alterations in the glycan structures are known to regulate activity. Here we review recent advances in identification and characterization of the enzymes responsible for glycosylating Notch and molecular mechanisms for how these O-glycans affect Notch activity.Current Opinion in Structural Biology 09/2011; 21(5):583-9. DOI:10.1016/j.sbi.2011.08.008 · 8.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NOTCH signaling induced by Delta1 (DLL1) and Jagged1 (JAG1) NOTCH ligands is modulated by the β3N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase Fringe. LFNG (Lunatic Fringe) and MFNG (Manic Fringe) transfer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to O-fucose attached to EGF-like repeats of NOTCH receptors. In co-culture NOTCH signaling assays, LFNG generally enhances DLL1-induced, but inhibits JAG1-induced, NOTCH signaling. In mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that do not add galactose (Gal) to the GlcNAc transferred by Fringe, JAG1-induced NOTCH signaling is not inhibited by LFNG or MFNG. In mouse embryos lacking B4galt1, NOTCH signaling is subtly reduced during somitogenesis. Here we show that DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling in CHO cells was enhanced by LFNG, but this did not occur in either Lec8 or Lec20 CHO mutants lacking Gal on O-fucose glycans. Lec20 mutants corrected with a B4galt1 cDNA became responsive to LFNG. By contrast, MFNG promoted DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling better in the absence of Gal than in its presence. This effect was reversed in Lec8 cells corrected by expression of a UDP-Gal transporter cDNA. The MFNG effect was abolished by a DDD to DDA mutation that inactivates MFNG GlcNAc transferase activity. The binding of soluble NOTCH ligands and NOTCH1/EGF1–36 generally reflected changes in NOTCH signaling caused by LFNG and MFNG. Therefore, the presence of Gal on O-fucose glycans differentially affects DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling modulated by LFNG versus MFNG. Gal enhances the effect of LFNG but inhibits the effect of MFNG on DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling, with functional consequences for regulating the strength of NOTCH signaling.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(1):474-83. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.317578 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The extracellular domain of Notch contains epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats that are extensively modified with different O-linked glycans. O-Fucosylation is essential for receptor function, and elongation with N-acetylglucosamine, catalyzed by members of the Fringe family, modulates Notch activity. Only recently, genes encoding enzymes involved in the O-glucosylation pathway have been cloned. In the Drosophila mutant rumi, characterized by a mutation in the protein O-glucosyltransferase, Notch signaling is impaired in a temperature-dependent manner, and a mouse knock-out leads to embryonic lethality. We have previously identified two human genes, GXYLT1 and GXYLT2, encoding glucoside xylosyltransferases responsible for the transfer of xylose to O-linked glucose. The identity of the enzyme further elongating the glycan to generate the final trisaccharide xylose-xylose-glucose, however, remained unknown. Here, we describe that the human gene C3ORF21 encodes a UDP-xylose:α-xyloside α1,3-xylosyltransferase, acting on xylose-α1,3-glucoseβ1-containing acceptor structures. We have, therefore, renamed it XXYLT1 (xyloside xylosyltransferase 1). XXYLT1 cannot act on a synthetic acceptor containing an α-linked xylose alone, but requires the presence of the underlying glucose. Activity on Notch EGF repeats was proven by in vitro xylosylation of a mouse Notch1 fragment recombinantly produced in Sf9 insect cells, a bacterially expressed EGF repeat from mouse Notch2 modified in vitro by Rumi and Gxylt2 and in vivo by co-expression of the enzyme with the Notch1 fragment. The enzyme was shown to be a typical type II membrane-bound glycosyltransferase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 287(4):2739-48. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.302406 · 4.57 Impact Factor