Notch activity is regulated by both O-fucosylation and O-glucosylation, and Notch receptors contain multiple predicted sites for both. Here we examine the occupancy of the predicted O-glucose sites on mouse Notch1 (mN1) using the consensus sequence C(1)XSXPC(2). We show that all of the predicted sites are modified, although the efficiency of modifying O-glucose sites is site- and cell type-dependent. For instance, although most sites are modified at high stoichiometries, the site at EGF 27 is only partially glucosylated, and the occupancy of the site at EGF 4 varies with cell type. O-Glucose is also found at a novel, non-traditional consensus site at EGF 9. Based on this finding, we propose a revision of the consensus sequence for O-glucosylation to allow alanine N-terminal to cysteine 2: C(1)XSX(A/P)C(2). We also show through biochemical and mass spectral analyses that serine is the only hydroxyamino acid that is modified with O-glucose on EGF repeats. The O-glucose at all sites is efficiently elongated to the trisaccharide Xyl-Xyl-Glc. To establish the functional importance of individual O-glucose sites in mN1, we used a cell-based signaling assay. Elimination of most individual sites shows little or no effect on mN1 activation, suggesting that the major effects of O-glucose are mediated by modification of multiple sites. Interestingly, elimination of the site in EGF 28, found in the Abruptex region of Notch, does significantly reduce activity. These results demonstrate that, like O-fucose, the O-glucose modifications of EGF repeats occur extensively on mN1, and they play important roles in Notch function.
"We recently revised this to C 1 -X-S-X(P/A )-C 2 based on our biochemical and mass spectral analyses of O-glucose glycan modification sites on mouse Notch1 and Drosophila Notch . Database searches for this consensus sequence identify over 40 proteins predicted to be O-glucosylated, although like O-fucose, the Notch family of receptors has more consensus sites than any other protein (Fig. 1) . O-Glucose glycans are also essential for Notch activity in both mice and flies  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch signaling is essential for cell-fate specification in metazoans, and dysregulation of the pathway leads to a variety of human diseases including heart and vascular defects as well as cancer. Glycosylation of the Notch extracellular domain has emerged as an elegant means for regulating Notch activity, especially since the discovery that Fringe is a glycosyltransferase that modifies O-fucose in 2000. Since then, several other O-glycans on the extracellular domain have been demonstrated to modulate Notch activity. Here we will describe recent results on the molecular mechanisms by which Fringe modulates Notch activity, summarize recent work on how O-glucose, O-GlcNAc, and O-GalNAc glycans affect Notch, and discuss several human genetic disorders resulting from defects in Notch glycosylation.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2014; 453(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.05.115 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Notch family of receptors plays essential roles in many phases of development, and dysregulation of Notch activity is increasingly recognized as a player in many diseases. O-Glycosylation of the Notch extracellular domain is essential for Notch activity, and tissue-specific alterations in the glycan structures are known to regulate activity. Here we review recent advances in identification and characterization of the enzymes responsible for glycosylating Notch and molecular mechanisms for how these O-glycans affect Notch activity.
Current Opinion in Structural Biology 09/2011; 21(5):583-9. DOI:10.1016/j.sbi.2011.08.008 · 7.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NOTCH signaling induced by Delta1 (DLL1) and Jagged1 (JAG1) NOTCH ligands is modulated by the β3N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase
Fringe. LFNG (Lunatic Fringe) and MFNG (Manic Fringe) transfer N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to O-fucose attached to EGF-like repeats of NOTCH receptors. In co-culture NOTCH signaling assays, LFNG generally enhances DLL1-induced,
but inhibits JAG1-induced, NOTCH signaling. In mutant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that do not add galactose (Gal) to
the GlcNAc transferred by Fringe, JAG1-induced NOTCH signaling is not inhibited by LFNG or MFNG. In mouse embryos lacking
B4galt1, NOTCH signaling is subtly reduced during somitogenesis. Here we show that DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling in CHO cells was
enhanced by LFNG, but this did not occur in either Lec8 or Lec20 CHO mutants lacking Gal on O-fucose glycans. Lec20 mutants corrected with a B4galt1 cDNA became responsive to LFNG. By contrast, MFNG promoted DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling better in the absence of Gal than
in its presence. This effect was reversed in Lec8 cells corrected by expression of a UDP-Gal transporter cDNA. The MFNG effect
was abolished by a DDD to DDA mutation that inactivates MFNG GlcNAc transferase activity. The binding of soluble NOTCH ligands
and NOTCH1/EGF1–36 generally reflected changes in NOTCH signaling caused by LFNG and MFNG. Therefore, the presence of Gal
on O-fucose glycans differentially affects DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling modulated by LFNG versus MFNG. Gal enhances the effect of LFNG but inhibits the effect of MFNG on DLL1-induced NOTCH signaling, with functional consequences
for regulating the strength of NOTCH signaling.
Menaka C Thounaojam, Duafalia F Dudimah, Samuel T Pellom, Roman V Uzhachenko, David P Carbone, Mikhail M Dikov, Anil Shanker
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