The Co-occurrence of Reading Disorder and ADHD: Epidemiology, Treatment, Psychosocial Impact, and Economic Burden

1United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Journal of learning disabilities (Impact Factor: 1.77). 07/2011; 45(6):538-64. DOI: 10.1177/0022219411407772
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The co-occurrence of reading disorder (RD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has received increasing attention. This review summarizes the epidemiology, treatment strategies, psychosocial impact, and economic burden associated with the co-occurrence of these conditions. Common genetic and neuropsychological deficits may partially explain the high degree of overlap between RD and ADHD. Children who face the additive problems of both disorders are at greater risk for academic failure, psychosocial consequences, and poor long-term outcomes that persist into adulthood. However, few studies have evaluated interventions targeted to this patient population, underscoring the importance of identifying effective multimodal treatments that address the neuropsychological deficits of RD and ADHD through carefully planned clinical research.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study explored the double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) in a transparent orthography (Finnish) and extended the view from reading disabilities to comorbidity of learning-related problems in math and attention. Children referred for evaluation of learning disabilities in second through sixth grade (N = 205) were divided into four groups based on rapid automatized naming (RAN) and phonological awareness (PA) according to the DDH: the double-deficit group, the naming speed deficit-only group, the phonological deficit-only group, and the no-deficit group. The results supported the DDH in that the prevalence and severity of reading disability were greatest in the double-deficit group. Despite the greater prevalence of reading disabilities in single-deficit groups compared to the no-deficit group, the means of reading measures in the single-deficit groups were similar to those of the no-deficit group. The PA single-deficit group was poorer in spelling than the no-deficit group and single-naming-deficit group. Deficits in RAN or PA were primarily linked to reading disabilities but not with math or attention problems. The results supported the DDH partially and indicate that deficits in RAN and PA are specific to reading disabilities. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2015.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: This study assessed the efficacy of atomoxetine on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children and adolescents having ADHD with comorbid dyslexia (ADHD+D) and the effects of the treatment on reading measures. Methods: The analyses in this report used data from a study designed to examine the effects of a nonstimulant pharmacological agent, atomoxetine, on reading in children with ADHD+D. Patients ages 10-16 years with ADHD or ADHD+D received open-label atomoxetine for 16 weeks. The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and reading subtests of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (K-TEA) were assessed. Changes in ADHD symptoms and reading scores were also analyzed by ADHD subtype. Treatment effect sizes and correlations between changes in ADHDRS and K-TEA scores were calculated. Results: After atomoxetine treatment, both ADHD and ADHD+D patient groups showed significant reduction in ADHD symptom and improvements in K-TEA reading scores. The range of treatment effect sizes on K-TEA scores was 0.35-0.53 for the ADHD group and 0.50-0.62 for the ADHD+D group. Pearson's correlation coefficients revealed only a few weak correlations between changes in ADHD symptoms and reading scores, regardless of diagnostic group. Conclusions: ADHD symptoms and K-TEA reading scores improved for both the ADHD and ADHD+D groups following atomoxetine treatment. Correlation analyses indicate that improvements in reading outcomes cannot be explained by a reduction of ADHD symptoms alone. These findings support further exploration of the potential effects of atomoxetine on reading in children with ADHD and dyslexia or dyslexia alone.
    Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 10/2014; 24(8). DOI:10.1089/cap.2013.0148 · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Mohammad Ali Salehinejad, Reza Rostami, Elham Ghanavati
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With a life time prevalence estimated at 16%, major depression (MD) is a major public health issue. Previous studies have shown that depression has been associated with a variety of cognitive impairments. In addition to cognitive impairments, major depression is usually accompanied by alterations of cortical activity, especially in prefrontal areas. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of noninvasive brain stimulation as a means of modulating cortical excitability. Recent studies on major depression (MD) have revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation induces cortical excitability which facilitates memory and especially working memory. On the other hand visual aspects of memory in MD have not been yet investigated. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether anodal and cathodal tDCS applied over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), would significantly improve visual memory in patients with major depression. Methods: Thirty (N=30) patients with major depression were randomly assigned to receive either experimental(active) or control (sham) tDCS. The participants underwent a series of visual memory tasks before and after 10 sessions of tDCS. The parameters of active tDCS included 2 mA for 20 minutes per day for 10 consecutive days, anode over the left DLPFC (F3), cathode over the right DLPFC (F4) region. Results: After 10 sessions of anodal and cathodal tDCS, patients showed significantly improved performance in visual and spatial aspects of memory tasks. Specifically, anodal stimulation improved visual memory perfo rmance for the experimental group relative to baseline, whereas sham stimulation did not differentiate performance from baseline in the control group. Conclusion: This study showed that anodal tDCS over DLPFC concurrently with cathodal tDCS over right DLPFC improved visual and spatial aspects of memory in patients with MD. This finding is in generally consistent with previous findings about effectiveness of tDCS on cognition in major depression, while additionally provides support for effectiveness of tDCS on visual memory in MD. Keywords: Major depression, memory, tDCS, visual memory