Dysfunction of AML1/Runx1, a transcription factor, plays a crucial role in the development of many types of leukemia. Additional events are often required for AML1 dysfunction to induce full-blown leukemia; however, a mechanistic basis of their cooperation is still elusive. Here, we investigated the effect of AML1 deficiency on the development of MLL-ENL leukemia in mice. Aml1 excised bone marrow cells lead to MLL-ENL leukemia with shorter duration than Aml1 intact cells in vivo. Although the number of MLL-ENL leukemia-initiating cells is not affected by loss of AML1, the proliferation of leukemic cells is enhanced in Aml1-excised MLL-ENL leukemic mice. We found that the enhanced proliferation is the result of repression of p19(ARF) that is directly regulated by AML1 in MLL-ENL leukemic cells. We also found that down-regulation of p19(ARF) induces the accelerated onset of MLL-ENL leukemia, suggesting that p19(ARF) is a major target of AML1 in MLL-ENL leukemia. These results provide a new insight into a role for AML1 in the progression of leukemia.
"Immature haematopoietic progenitors of FDP/AML patients have increased clonogenic potential and, in some cases, aberrant self-renewal capacities (Bluteau et al, 2011). Consistently, Runx1 conditional knockout mice presented expansion of haematopoietic stem cells that could predispose to leukaemia development (Nishimoto et al, 2011). Mks cultured from CD34 + cells of FDP/AML subjects were characterized by profound defects in maturation to glycoprotein (GP)IIb+/GPIX+ cells and in polyploidization. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of platelet production has greatly expanded in recent years due to the opportunity to culture in vitro megakaryocytes and to create transgenic animals with specific genetic defects that interfere with platelet biogenesis. However, in vitro models do not reproduce the complexity of the bone marrow microenvironment where megakaryopoiesis takes place, and experience shows that what is seen in animals does not always happen in humans. So, these experimental models tell us what might happen in humans, but does not assure us that these events really occur. In contrast, inherited thrombocytopenias offer the unique opportunity to verify in humans the actual effects of abnormalities in specific molecules on platelet production. There are currently 20 genes whose defects are known to result in thrombocytopenia and, on this basis, this review tries to outline a model of megakaryopoiesis based on firm evidence. Inherited thrombocytopenias have not yet yielded all the information they can provide, because nearly half of patients have forms that do not fit with any known disorder. So, further investigation of inherited thrombocytopenias will advance not only the knowledge of human illnesses, but also our understanding of human platelet production.
British Journal of Haematology 01/2014; 165(2). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12752 · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) protein is an important epigenetic regulator required for the maintenance of gene activation during development. MLL chromosomal translocations produce novel fusion proteins that cause aggressive leukemias in humans. Individual MLL fusion proteins have distinct leukemic phenotypes even when expressed in the same cell type, but how this distinction is delineated on a molecular level is poorly understood. Here, we highlight a unique molecular mechanism whereby the RUNX1 gene is directly activated by MLL-AF4 and the RUNX1 protein interacts with the product of the reciprocal AF4-MLL translocation. These results support a mechanism of transformation whereby two oncogenic fusion proteins cooperate by activating a target gene and then modulating the function of its downstream product.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since its discovery from a translocation in leukemias, the runt-related transcription factor 1/acute myelogenous leukemia-1 (RUNX1/AML1), which is widely expressed in hematopoietic cells, has been extensively studied. Many lines of evidence have shown that RUNX1 plays a critical role in regulating the development and precise maintenance of mammalian hematopoiesis. Studies using knockout mice have shown the importance of RUNX1 in a wide variety of hematopoietic cells, including hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes. Recently, target molecular processes of RUNX1 in normal and malignant hematopoiesis have been revealed. Although RUNX1 is not required for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, it is required for the homeostasis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells due to RUNX1 deletion may be an important cause of human leukemias. Molecular abnormalities cooperating with loss of RUNX1 have also been identified. These findings may lead to a further understanding of human leukemias, and suggest novel molecular targeted therapies in the near future.
International journal of hematology 04/2013; 97(6). DOI:10.1007/s12185-013-1347-3 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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