Germline BRCA mutation does not prevent response to taxane-based therapy for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT • To investigate the relationship between BRCA mutation status and response to taxane-based chemotherapy, since BRCA mutation carriers with prostate cancer appear to have worse survival than non-carriers and docetaxel improves survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
• We determined BRCA mutation prevalence in 158 Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clinical data were collected as part of an institutional prostate cancer research database and through additional medical record review. • Clinical records and DNA samples were linked through a unique identifier, anonymizing the samples before genetic testing for the AJ BRCA1/2 founder mutations. • Response to taxane-based therapy was defined by the prostate-specific antigen nadir within 12 weeks of therapy.
• In all, 88 men received taxane-based treatment, seven of whom were BRCA carriers (three BRCA1, four BRCA2; 8%). Initial response to taxane was available for all seven BRCA carriers and for 69 non-carriers. • Overall, 71% (54/76) of patients responded to treatment, with no significant difference between carriers (57%) and non-carriers (72%) (absolute difference 15%; 95% confidence interval -23% to 53%; P= 0.4). • Among patients with an initial response, the median change in prostate-specific antigen was similar for BRCA carriers (-63%, interquartile range -71% to -57%) and non-carriers (-60%, interquartile range -78% to -35%) (P= 0.6). • At last follow-up, all seven BRCA carriers and 49 non-carriers had died from prostate cancer. One BRCA2 carrier treated with docetaxel plus platinum survived 37 months.
• In this small, hypothesis-generating study approximately half of BRCA carriers had a prostate-specific antigen response to taxane-based chemotherapy, suggesting that it is an active therapy in these individuals.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSETo analyze the baseline clinicopathologic characteristics of prostate tumors with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations and the prognostic value of those mutations on prostate cancer (PCa) outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS This study analyzed the tumor features and outcomes of 2,019 patients with PCa (18 BRCA1 carriers, 61 BRCA2 carriers, and 1,940 noncarriers). The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the associations between BRCA1/2 status and other PCa prognostic factors with overall survival (OS), cause-specific OS (CSS), CSS in localized PCa (CSS_M0), metastasis-free survival (MFS), and CSS from metastasis (CSS_M1).ResultsPCa with germline BRCA1/2 mutations were more frequently associated with Gleason ≥ 8 (P = .00003), T3/T4 stage (P = .003), nodal involvement (P = .00005), and metastases at diagnosis (P = .005) than PCa in noncarriers. CSS was significantly longer in noncarriers than in carriers (15.7 v 8.6 years, multivariable analyses [MVA] P = .015; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.8). For localized PCa, 5-year CSS and MFS were significantly higher in noncarriers (96% v 82%; MVA P = .01; HR = 2.6%; and 93% v 77%; MVA P = .009; HR = 2.7, respectively). Subgroup analyses confirmed the poor outcomes in BRCA2 patients, whereas the role of BRCA1 was not well defined due to the limited size and follow-up in this subgroup. CONCLUSION Our results confirm that BRCA1/2 mutations confer a more aggressive PCa phenotype with a higher probability of nodal involvement and distant metastasis. BRCA mutations are associated with poor survival outcomes and this should be considered for tailoring clinical management of these patients.Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2013; · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. A 51-year-old French Canadian man presented to his family physician owing to an extensive family history of prostate cancer in five brothers, his father and two paternal uncles. His serum PSA level was 4.9 ng/ml and a six-core biopsy revealed the presence of a prostate adenocarcinoma with a Gleason score of 7 (3+4). He was treated with radical prostatectomy. Repeat PSA tests revealed a gradual rise in PSA levels despite androgen deprivation therapy with bicalutamide and goserelin over the course of 3 years. Genetic evaluation was undertaken in view of his personal and family history. The proband died at the age of 58 years of widespread metastasis.Investigations. PSA testing, six-core biopsy, genetic counselling and mutation analysis for French Canadian founder mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, histopathological review of tumour tissue from family members, examination of loss of heterozygosity at the BRCA2 gene locus, immunohistochemistry to determine the expression of the ERG nuclear oncoprotein in prostate tumours, genotyping with eight selected risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms, Doppler ultrasonography of the leg, CT of the abdomen and pelvis with intravenous and oral contrast, chest CT with intravenous contrast for the assessment of metastatic prostate cancer, genetic testing for the G84E variant in the HOXB13 gene.Diagnosis. Early-onset and aggressive prostate cancer associated with a nonsense French Canadian BRCA2 founder mutation, c.5857G>T (p.Glu1953(*)).Management. Radical prostatectomy, hormone therapy with bicalutamide and goserelin, palliative chemotherapy initially with docetaxel plus prednisone then with mitoxantrone plus prednisone, as well as genetic counselling and testing for the proband and his family members.Nature Reviews Urology 01/2013; · 4.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is strong evidence of a genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. Recent advances in genetic sequencing technologies have permitted significant advances in the field. This article reviews the genetic basis underlying prostate cancer, and highlights the epidemiology and potential clinical usefulness of both rare and common genetic variations. In addition, recent findings related to the understanding of prostate cancer genetics are discussed.Urologic Clinics of North America 05/2014; 41(2):277-297. · 1.39 Impact Factor