The Hbo1-Brd1/Brpf2 complex is responsible for global acetylation of H3K14 and required for fetal liver erythropoiesis.
ABSTRACT The histone acetyltransferases (HATs) of the MYST family include TIP60, HBO1, MOZ/MORF, and MOF and function in multisubunit protein complexes. Bromodomain-containing protein 1 (BRD1), also known as BRPF2, has been considered a subunit of the MOZ/MORF H3 HAT complex based on analogy with BRPF1 and BRPF3. However, its physiologic function remains obscure. Here we show that BRD1 forms a novel HAT complex with HBO1 and regulates erythropoiesis. Brd1-deficient embryos showed severe anemia because of impaired fetal liver erythropoiesis. Biochemical analyses revealed that BRD1 bridges HBO1 and its activator protein, ING4. Genome-wide mapping in erythroblasts demonstrated that BRD1 and HBO1 largely colocalize in the genome and target key developmental regulator genes. Of note, levels of global acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) were profoundly decreased in Brd1-deficient erythroblasts and depletion of Hbo1 similarly affected H3K14 acetylation. Impaired erythropoiesis in the absence of Brd1 accompanied reduced expression of key erythroid regulator genes, including Gata1, and was partially restored by forced expression of Gata1. Our findings suggest that the Hbo1-Brd1 complex is the major H3K14 HAT required for transcriptional activation of erythroid developmental regulator genes.
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ABSTRACT: Histone modifiers like acetyltransferases, methyltransferases, and demethylases are critical regulators of most DNA-based nuclear processes, de facto controlling cell cycle progression and cell fate. These enzymes perform very precise post-translational modifications on specific histone residues, which in turn are recognized by different effector modules/proteins. We now have a better understanding of how these enzymes exhibit such specificity. As they often reside in multisubunit complexes, they use associated factors to target their substrates within chromatin structure and select specific histone mark-bearing nucleosomes. In this review, we cover the current understanding of how histone modifiers select their histone targets. We also explain how different experimental approaches can lead to conflicting results about the histone specificity and function of these enzymes.Genes & development 05/2014; 28(10):1029-1041. · 12.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic mechanisms are important in different neurological disorders and one such mechanism is histone acetylation. The multivalent chromatin regulator BRPF1 (bromodomain- and PHD finger-containing protein 1) recognizes different epigenetic marks and activates three histone acetyltransferases, so it is both a reader and a co-writer of the epigenetic language. The three histone acetyltransferases are MOZ, MORF and HBO1, which are also known as lysine acetyltransferase 6A (KAT6A), KAT6B and KAT7, respectively. The MORF gene is mutated in four neurodevelopmental disorders sharing the characteristic of intellectual disability and frequently displaying callosal agenesis. Here we report that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene caused early postnatal lethality, neocortical abnormalities and partial callosal agenesis. With respect to the control, the mutant forebrain contained fewer Tbr2-positive intermediate neuronal progenitors and displayed aberrant neurogenesis. Molecularly, Brpf1 loss led to decreased transcription of multiple genes, such as Robo3 and Otx1, important for neocortical development. Surprisingly, elevated expression of different Hox genes and various other transcription factors, such as Lhx4, Foxa1, Tbx5 and Twist1, was also observed. These results thus identify an important role of Brpf1 in regulating forebrain development and suggest that it acts as both an activator and a silencer of gene expression in vivo.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2015; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Acetylation of lysine residues in histone tails plays an important role in the regulation of gene transcription. Bromdomains are the readers of acetylated histone marks, and, consequently, bromodomain-containing proteins have a variety of chromatin-related functions. Moreover, they are increasingly being recognised as important mediators of a wide range of diseases. The first potent and selective bromodomain inhibitors are beginning to be described, but the diverse or unknown functions of bromodomain-containing proteins present challenges to systematically demonstrating cellular efficacy and selectivity for these inhibitors. Here we assess the viability of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays as a target agnostic method for the direct visualisation of an on-target effect of bromodomain inhibitors in living cells. Results: Mutation of a conserved asparagine crucial for binding to acetylated lysines in the bromodomains of BRD3, BRD4 and TRIM24 all resulted in reduction of FRAP recovery times, indicating loss of or significantly reduced binding to acetylated chromatin, as did the addition of known inhibitors. Significant differences between wild type and bromodomain mutants for ATAD2, BAZ2A, BRD1, BRD7, GCN5L2, SMARCA2 and ZMYND11 required the addition of the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) to amplify the binding contribution of the bromodomain. Under these conditions, known inhibitors decreased FRAP recovery times back to mutant control levels. Mutation of the bromodomain did not alter FRAP recovery times for full-length CREBBP, even in the presence of SAHA, indicating that other domains are primarily responsible for anchoring CREBBP to chromatin. However, FRAP assays with multimerised CREBBP bromodomains resulted in a good assay to assess the efficacy of bromodomain inhibitors to this target. The bromodomain and extraterminal protein inhibitor PFI-1 was inactive against other bromodomain targets, demonstrating the specificity of the method. Conclusions: Viable FRAP assays were established for 11 representative bromodomain-containing proteins that broadly cover the bromodomain phylogenetic tree. Addition of SAHA can overcome weak binding to chromatin, and the use of tandem bromodomain constructs can eliminate masking effects of other chromatin binding domains. Together, these results demonstrate that FRAP assays offer a potentially pan-bromodomain method for generating cell-based assays, allowing the testing of compounds with respect to cell permeability, on-target efficacy and selectivity.Epigenetics & Chromatin 07/2014; · 4.46 Impact Factor