Effect of hypokalemia on renal expression of the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B Glycoprotein and Rh C Glycoprotein, in the rat kidney.
ABSTRACT Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disorder that increases renal ammonia metabolism and can cause the development of an acid-base disorder, metabolic alkalosis. The ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg), are expressed in the distal nephron and collecting duct and mediate critical roles in acid-base homeostasis by facilitating ammonia secretion. In the current studies, the effect of hypokalemia on renal Rhbg and Rhcg expression was examined. Normal Sprague-Dawley rats received either K(+)-free or control diets for 2 wk. Rats receiving the K(+)-deficient diet developed hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis associated with significant increases in both urinary ammonia excretion and urine pH. Rhcg expression increased in the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD). In OMCD intercalated cells, hypokalemia resulted in more discrete apical Rhcg expression and a marked increase in apical plasma membrane immunolabel. In principal cells, in the OMCD, hypokalemia increased both apical and basolateral Rhcg immunolabel intensity. Cortical Rhcg expression was not detectably altered by immunohistochemistry, although there was a slight decrease in total expression by immunoblot analysis. Rhbg protein expression was decreased slightly in the cortex and not detectably altered in the outer medulla. We conclude that in rat OMCD, hypokalemia increases Rhcg expression, causes more polarized apical expression in intercalated cells, and increases both apical and basolateral expression in the principal cell. Increased plasma membrane Rhcg expression in response to hypokalemia in the rat, particularly in the OMCD, likely contributes to the increased ammonia excretion and thereby to the development of metabolic alkalosis.
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ABSTRACT: Ammonia, in addition to its role as a constituent of urinary net acid excretion, stimulates cortical collecting duct (CCD) net bicarbonate reabsorption. The current study sought to begin determining the cellular transport processes through which ammonia regulates bicarbonate reabsorption by testing whether ammonia stimulates B-type intercalated cell bicarbonate secretion, bicarbonate reabsorption, or both. The effects of ammonia on single CCD intercalated cells was studied by use of measurements of intracellular pH taken from in vitro microperfused CCD segments after luminal loading of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF. These results showed, first, that ammonia inhibited B-cell unidirectional bicarbonate secretion and that this occurred despite no effect of ammonia on apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity. Second, ammonia increased the contribution of a SCH28080-sensitive apical H(+)-K(+)-ATPase to basal intracellular pH regulation and it stimulated basolateral Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange activity. Thus, ammonia activated both apical proton secretion and basolateral base exit, consistent with stimulation of unidirectional bicarbonate reabsorption. It was concluded that ammonia regulates CCD net bicarbonate reabsorption, at least in part, through the coordinated regulation of the separate processes of B-cell bicarbonate reabsorption and bicarbonate secretion. These effects do not reflect a general activation of ion transport but, instead, reflect coordinated and specific regulation of ion transport.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2001; 12(8):1607-14. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Ammonia and acid-base homeostasis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The metabolic pathways involved in renal ammonia production have been considered and potential sites of regulatory control have been delineated. New information that acute acidosis stimulates renal ammonia production and that chronic respiratory acidosis does not result in an adaptive increase in the renal capacity to produce ammonia has been emphasized. The effect of potassium on renal ammonia production and the physiologic and pathophysiologic implication of this relationship have been detailed. Finally, the mechanism of urinary ammonium excretion and the impact of altered ammoniagenesis on urinary acidification, and the interpretation of clinical acidification tests have been discussed.Medical Clinics of North America 08/1983; 67(4):781-98. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of carbonic anhydrase activity in rabbit and mouse kidneys was examined using a histochemical procedure with plastic embedded sections stained by the modified version of the cobalt-phosphate method (Hansson, 1967, 1968; Ridderstrale, 1976). Proximal convoluted tubules (S1 and S2 segments) in both species were strongly positive for carbonic anhydrase activity on the membranes of the luminal, lateral, and basal surfaces. The apical cytoplasm beneath the brush border and the nuclei also stained positively for carbonic anhydrase. The S3 segment (pars recta) of the proximal tubule in the rabbit was positive on the luminal membrane, with somewhat less intensity seen on the lateral and basal surfaces. This segment in the mouse was completely negative. The first part of the thin limbs of long-looped nephrons exhibited strong staining in the mouse. Faint luminal staining was present on descending thin limbs of short-looped nephrons in the mouse. In the rabbit, both the medullary and cortical ascending thick segments of the limb of Henle were completely negative. In contrast, the medullary and cortical ascending thick limbs in the mouse kidney showed staining on all plasma membranes. The intercalated cells in the cortical and medullary portion of the collecting tubules stained positively for carbonic anhydrase in both species. The principal cells of the collecting duct in the cortex were negative in the rabbit and faintly positive in the mouse. The principal cells in the upper medullary collecting tubules in both species stained intensely along the luminal, lateral, and basal cell membranes. The papillary collecting ducts were largely negative in both the rabbit and the mouse. Some interstitial cells in the rabbit in the region of the papillary tip were strongly positive. We conclude that there is a marked difference in carbonic anhydrase activity within and between the renal tubular segments of the rabbit and the mouse. In addition, these distinct differences that exist between the two species correlated with known physiological roles in ion transport.The Anatomical Record 12/1982; 204(3):185-97.