Role of calpain in the formation of human papillomavirus type 16 E1^E4 amyloid fibers and reorganization of the keratin network.
ABSTRACT The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E1^E4 (16E1^E4) protein is expressed in the middle to upper layers of infected epithelium and has several roles within the virus life cycle. It is apparent that within the epithelium there are multiple species of 16E1^E4 that differ in length and/or degree of phosphorylation and that some or all of these can associate with the cellular keratin networks, leading to network disruption. We show here that the cellular cysteine protease calpain cleaves the 16E1^E4 protein after amino acid 17 to generate species that lack the N terminus. These C-terminal fragments are able to multimerize and form amyloid-like fibers. This can lead to accumulation of 16E1^E4 and disruption of the normal dynamics of the keratin networks. The cleavage of E1^E4 proteins by calpain may be a common strategy used by α-group viruses, since we show that cleavage of type 18 E1^E4 in raft culture is also dependent on calpain. Interestingly, the cleavage of 16E1^E4 by calpain appears to be highly regulated as differentiation of HPV genome-containing cells by methylcellulose is insufficient to induce cleavage. We hypothesize that this is important since it ensures that the formation of the amyloid fibers is not prematurely triggered in the lower layers and is restricted to the upper layers, where calpain is active and where disruption of the keratin networks may aid virus release.
Article: A splicing enhancer in the E4 coding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is required for early mRNA splicing and polyadenylation as well as inhibition of premature late gene expression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Successful inhibition of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) late gene expression early in the life cycle is essential for persistence of infection, the highest risk factor for cervical cancer. Our study aimed to locate regulatory RNA elements in the early region of HPV-16 that influence late gene expression. For this purpose, subgenomic HPV-16 expression plasmids under control of the strong human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter were used. An exonic splicing enhancer that firmly supported the use of the E4 3' splice site at position 3358 in the early region of the HPV-16 genome was identified. The enhancer was mapped to a 65-nucleotide AC-rich sequence located approximately 100 nucleotides downstream of the position 3358 3' splice site. Deletion of the enhancer caused loss of both splicing at the upstream position 3358 3' splice site and polyadenylation at the early polyadenylation signal, pAE. Direct splicing occurred at the competing L1 3' splice site at position 5639 in the late region. Optimization of the position 3358 3' splice site restored splicing to that site and polyadenylation at pAE. Additionally, a sequence of 40 nucleotides with a negative effect on late mRNA production was located immediately downstream of the enhancer. As the E4 3' splice site is employed by both early and late mRNAs, the enhancer constitutes a key regulator of temporal HPV-16 gene expression, which is required for early mRNA production as well as for the inhibition of premature late gene expression.Journal of Virology 10/2005; 79(18):12002-15. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: A novel interaction between the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 and E1--E4 proteins leads to stabilization of E2.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The E4 (also called E1--E4) and E2 proteins of human papillomavirus type 16 are thought to be expressed within the same cells of a lesion, and their open reading frames overlap, suggesting that they may have a functional relationship. We have examined the effect of co-expression of these two proteins and found that each enhances the level of the other. We also identified the N-terminus of E2 as the first example of a viral protein that directly binds the HPV16 E1--E4 protein. This appears to result in the E2 becoming less soluble and promotes its relocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In addition, the turnover of the E2 protein is decreased in the presence of E1--E4. All this raises the possibility that E1--E4 acts to influence E2 activity by varying the amount of available E2 in the cell.Virology 09/2009; 394(2):266-75. · 3.35 Impact Factor