[Successful treatment of Erdheim-Chester disease by 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine-based chemotherapy. Two case studies and a literature review].
ABSTRACT Erdheim-Chester disease is an extremely rarely occuring condition and thus an optimal treatment is not known. Two new cases have been diagnosed in our centre in 2008 and 2009. Both patients had diabetes insipidus, B symptoms (subfebrile to febrile states) and pain in long bones of lower limbs.
Imaging showed high accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose as well as Tc-pyrophosphate in long bones of lower as well as upper limbs, aortic wall thickening with periaortic fibrosis and perirenal fibrosis. In addition, one of the patients had multiple lesions in the brain. 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine 5 mg/m2 s.c. and cyclophosphamide 150 mg/m2 administered on days 1 to 5 in 28-day cycles were selected for the treatment of both patients. Dexamethasone 24 mg/day for 5 days was added to this treatment in the second patient. Six cycles of the treatment were planned. Both patients were prescribed bisphosphonates--zoledronate and clodronate, respectively. Treatment effect was assessed with PET-CT and MR. Following treatment completion, brain infiltrates were reduced to a small residuum in the first patient who did not anymore complain of leg pain. However, there was no reduction in fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in bone lesions and thus treatment response was assessed as partial remission. This patient is currently receiving a second line treatment and treatment follow-up is 26 months from the diagnosis. Repeated PET-CTs in the second patient showed a significant reduction in accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose in all pathological lesions. Febrile states and pain in long bones as well as pathological fatigue ceased after the treatment. Increased CPR and fibrinogen gradually returned to their normal levels. This response is assessed as complete remission. This patient's follow-up is 16 months from the diagnosis.
Administration of 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (5 mg/m2 s.c.) + cyclophosphamide (150 mg/m2 intravenously) and dexamethasone (24 mg/day) led to partial remission in one patient; nearly complete remission of CNS infiltrates but persistent elevation of fluorodeoxyglucose accumulation in bone lesions. Complete remission with a significant reduction in accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose in all disease lesions with normalization of originally increased inflammatory markers and disappearance of all symptoms of the disease was achieved in the second patient.
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ABSTRACT: Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD), a non Langerhans' cell histiocytosis of orphan nature and propensity for multi-systemic presentations, comprises an intricate medical challenge in terms of diagnosis, treatment and complication management. The objectives are to report the clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics, as well as cardinal therapeutic approaches to ECD patients and to provide clinical analyses of the medical chronicles of these complex patients. Patients with biopsy proven ECD were audited by a multi-disciplinary team of specialists who formed a coherent timeline of all the substantial clinical events in the evolution of their patients' illness. Seven patients (five men, two women) were recruited to the study. The median age at presentation was 53 years (range: 39 to 62 years). The median follow-up time was 36 months (range: 1 to 72 months). Notable ECD involvement sites included the skeleton (seven), pituitary gland (seven), retroperitoneum (five), central nervous system (four), skin (four), lungs and pleura (four), orbits (three), heart and great vessels (three) and retinae (one). Prominent signs and symptoms were fever (seven), polyuria and polydipsia (six), ataxia and dysarthria (four), bone pain (four), exophthalmos (three), renovascular hypertension (one) and dyspnea (one). The V600E BRAF mutation was verified in three of six patients tested. Interferon-α treatment was beneficial in three of six patients treated. Vemurafenib yielded dramatic neurological improvement in a BRAF mutated patient. Infliximab facilitated pericardial effusion volume reduction. Cladribine improved cerebral blood flow originally compromised by perivenous lesions. ECD is a complex, multi-systemic, clonal entity coalescing both neoplastic and inflammatory elements and strongly dependent on impaired RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling.BMC Medicine 12/2014; 12(1):221. DOI:10.1186/s12916-014-0221-3 · 7.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare CD68(+), CD1a(-) non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multiorgan involvement. The etiology of Erdheim-Chester disease is unclear; there are no known associated infectious or hereditary genetic abnormalities. However, somatic BRAF mutations have recently been identified in these patients. Historically, the literature regarding the management of Erdheim-Chester disease consisted of case reports and small case series with anecdotal therapeutic responses to agents including, but not limited to, cytotoxic chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation, cladribine, corticosteroids, IFN-α, the BCR-ABL/KIT inhibitor imatinib mesylate, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra, the TNF-inhibitor infliximab, and recently the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. We performed a search of the literature using PubMed with the terms Erdheim Chester disease, without date limitations, including case reports, case series, original articles, and previous review articles. In the absence of large-scale studies, experience-based management prevails. The present review details our approach to the management of patients with Erdheim-Chester disease.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 05/2014; 89(7). DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.01.023 · 5.79 Impact Factor
Article: [Erdheim-Chester disease.][Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare and orphan disease. Despite having been overlooked previously, numerous new cases have been diagnosed more recently. The number of Erdheim-Chester disease cases reported has increased substantially: more than 300 new cases have been published in the past 10 years. This situation is mainly a result of the generally better awareness among pathologists, radiologists, and clinicians of various aspects of this rare disease. The field has been particularly active in the last few years, with evidence of the efficacy of interferon-α, the description of a systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine signature, and most recently, reports of the dramatic efficacy of BRAF inhibition in severe, BRAF(V600E) mutation-associated cases of Erdheim-Chester disease. Also, BRAF mutations have been found in more than half of the patients with Erdheim-Chester disease who were tested. Detailed elucidation of the pathogenesis of the disease is likely to lead to the development of better targeted and more effective therapies.La Revue de Médecine Interne 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.revmed.2014.04.007 · 1.32 Impact Factor