Leptin enhances migration of human papillary thyroid cancer cells through the PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signaling pathways
ABSTRACT The incidence of thyroid cancer has remarkably increased in recent years. Epidemiologic data suggest that obesity is associated with an increased incidence of several types of malignancies, including thyroid cancer. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has been shown to be involved in cancer development and progression. We previously demonstrated that papillary thyroid cancer expressing leptin receptor and/or leptin has a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis. In this study, we investigated the effects of leptin on cell migration in K1 and B-CPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells. Expression of leptin receptor was observed in both cell lines. Leptin enhanced the migratory activity significantly in a dose-dependent manner. We showed that leptin induced AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and ERK activation using pharmacological inhibitors effectively blocked leptin-induced migration of K1 and B-CPAP cells. Taken together, this study provides new mechanistic evidence for a role of leptin in the regulation of papillary thyroid cancer progression by stimulating tumor cell migration.
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ABSTRACT: Background Several studies have evaluated the association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. However, the results remain uncertain. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between obesity and thyroid cancer risk. Material and Methods Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE, Springer Link, Ovid, Chinese Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM) were retrieved before 10 August 2014. We included all studies that reported adjusted risk ratios (RRs), hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of thyroid cancer risk. Results Thirty-two studies (n=12 620 676) were included in this meta-analysis. Obesity was associated with a significantly increased risk of thyroid cancer (adjusted RR=1.33; 95% CI, 1.24-1.42; I2=25%). In the subgroup analysis by study type, increased risk of thyroid cancer was found in cohort studies and case-control studies. In subgroup analysis by sex, both obese men and women were at significantly greater risk of thyroid cancer than non-obese subjects. When stratified by ethnicity, significantly elevated risk was observed in Caucasians and in Asians. In the age subgroup analysis, both young and old populations showed increased thyroid cancer risk. Subgroup analysis on smoking status showed that increased thyroid cancer risks were found in smokers and in non-smokers. In the histology subgroup analyses, increased risks of papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, and anaplastic thyroid cancer were observed. However, obesity was associated with decreased risk of medullary thyroid cancer. Conclusions Our results indicate that obesity is associated with an increased thyroid cancer risk, except medullary thyroid cancer.Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 01/2015; 21:283-91. DOI:10.12659/MSM.892035 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous reports indicate that over 13 different tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are related to obesity. Obesity-associated inflammatory, metabolic, and endocrine mediators, as well as the functioning of the gut microbiota, are suspected to contribute to tumorigenesis. In obese people, proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, adipokines, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, adiponectin, and leptin are found to play crucial roles in the initiation and development of cancer. The cytokines induced by leptin in adipose tissue or tumor cells have been intensely studied. Leptin-induced signaling pathways are critical for biological functions such as adiposity, energy balance, endocrine function, immune reaction, and angiogenesis as well as oncogenesis. Leptin is an activator of cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis in several cell types, and an inducer of cancer stem cells; its critical roles in tumorigenesis are based on its oncogenic, mitogenic, proinflammatory, and pro-angiogenic actions. This review provides an update of the pathological effects of leptin signaling with special emphasis on potential molecular mechanisms and therapeutic targeting, which could potentially be used in future clinical settings. In addition, leptin-induced angiogenic ability and molecular mechanisms in HCC are discussed. The stringent binding affinity of leptin and its receptor Ob-R, as well as the highly upregulated expression of both leptin and Ob-R in cancer cells compared to normal cells, makes leptin an ideal drug target for the prevention and treatment of HCC, especially in obese patients.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2295-2302. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S69004 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Obesity is characterized by high secretion of several cytokines from adipose tissue and is a recognized risk factor for many cancers. Among these cytokines, leptin mainly produced by adipose tissue and cancer cells is the most studied adipokine. Leptin is an activator of cell proliferation, an antiapoptotic molecule and inducer of cancer stem cells in many cell types, and its critical roles in obesity-related tumorigenesis are based on its oncogenic, mitogenic, pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic actions. Areas covered: These leptin-induced signals and action are critical for their biological effects on energy balance, adiposity, endocrine systems, immunity, angiogenesis as well as oncogenesis. This review focuses on the up-to-date knowledge on the oncogenic role of leptin signaling, clinical significance and specific drug target development in colorectal cancer (CRC). Additionally, leptin-induced angiogenic ability and molecular mechanisms in CRC cells are discussed. Expert opinion: Stringent binding affinity of leptin/Ob-R and overexpression of leptin/Ob-R and their targets in cancer cells make it a unique drug target for prevention and treatment of CRC, particularly in obesity colorectal patients.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 06/2014; DOI:10.1517/14728222.2014.926889 · 4.90 Impact Factor