Focal adhesion kinase - The basis of local hypertrophic signaling domains
ABSTRACT Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a broadly expressed non-receptor tyrosine kinase which transduces signals from integrins, growth and hormonal factors, is a key player in many fundamental biological processes and functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. The involvement of FAK in this range of functions supports its role in important aspects of organismal development and disease, such as central nervous system and cardiovascular development, cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and tissue fibrosis. Many functions of FAK are correlated with its tyrosine kinase activity, which is temporally and spatially controlled by complex intra-molecular autoinhibitory conformation and inter-molecular interactions with protein and lipid partners. The inactivation of FAK in mice results in embryonic lethality attributed to the lack of proper development and function of the heart. Accordingly, embryonic FAK myocyte-specific knockout mice display lethal cardiac defects such as thin ventricle wall and ventricular septum defects. Emerging data also support a role for FAK in the reactive hypertrophy and failure of adult hearts. Moreover, the mechanisms that regulate FAK in differentiated cardiac myocytes to biomechanical stress and soluble factors are beginning to be revealed and are discussed here together with data that connect FAK to its downstream effectors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes".
- SourceAvailable from: Mikhail A Kolpakov[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The proto-oncogene Casitas b-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl) is an adaptor protein with an intrinsic E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that targets receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases, resulting in their ubiquitination and down-regulation. However, the function of c-Cbl in the control of cardiac function is currently unknown. In this study, we examined the role of c-Cbl in myocyte death and cardiac function after myocardial ischemia. We show increased c-Cbl expression in human ischemic and dilated cardiomyopathy hearts and in response to pathological stress stimuli in mice. c-Cbl deficient mice demonstrated a more robust functional recovery after myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, as well as significantly reduced myocyte apoptosis and improved cardiac function. Ubiquitination and downregulation of key survival c-Cbl targets, epidermal growth factor receptors and focal adhesion kinase, were significantly reduced in c-Cbl knockout mice. Inhibition of c-Cbl expression or its ubiquitin ligase activity in cardiac myocytes offered protection against H2O2 stress. Interestingly, c-Cbl deletion reduced the risk of death and increased cardiac functional recovery after chronic myocardial ischemia. This beneficial effect of c-Cbl deletion was associated with enhanced neoangiogenesis and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-a and VEGF receptor type 2 in the infarcted region. c-Cbl activation promotes myocyte apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and causes adverse cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction. These findings point to c-Cbl as a potential therapeutic target for the maintenance of cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial ischemia.Circulation 02/2014; DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.007004 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stem cell differentiation into a variety of lineages is known to involve signaling from the extracellular niche, including from the physical properties of that environment. What regulates stem cell responses to these cues is there ability to activate different mechanotransductive pathways. Here, we will review the structures and pathways that regulate stem cell commitment to a cardiomyocyte lineage, specifically examining proteins within muscle sarcomeres, costameres, and intercalated discs. Proteins within these structures stretch, inducing a change in their phosphorylated state or in their localization to initiate different signals. We will also put these changes in the context of stem cell differentiation into cardiomyocytes, their subsequent formation of the chambered heart, and explore negative signaling that occurs during disease.Progress in molecular biology and translational science 01/2014; 126:219-42. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-394624-9.00009-9 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) contributes to cellular homeostasis under stress conditions. Here we show that αB-crystallin interacts with and confers protection to FAK against calpain-mediated proteolysis in cardiomyocytes. A hydrophobic patch mapped between helices 1 and 4 of the FAK FAT domain was found to bind to the β4-β8 groove of αB-crystallin. Such an interaction requires FAK tyrosine 925 and is enhanced following its phosphorylation by Src, which occurs upon FAK stimulation. αB-crystallin silencing results in calpain-dependent FAK depletion and in the increased apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in response to mechanical stress. FAK overexpression protects cardiomyocytes depleted of αB-crystallin against the stretch-induced apoptosis. Consistently, load-induced apoptosis is blunted in the hearts from cardiac-specific FAK transgenic mice transiently depleted of αB-crystallin by RNA interference. These studies define a role for αB-crystallin in controlling FAK function and cardiomyocyte survival through the prevention of calpain-mediated degradation of FAK.Nature Communications 10/2014; 5:5159. DOI:10.1038/ncomms6159 · 10.74 Impact Factor