Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a broadly expressed non-receptor tyrosine kinase which transduces signals from integrins, growth and hormonal factors, is a key player in many fundamental biological processes and functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and survival. The involvement of FAK in this range of functions supports its role in important aspects of organismal development and disease, such as central nervous system and cardiovascular development, cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and tissue fibrosis. Many functions of FAK are correlated with its tyrosine kinase activity, which is temporally and spatially controlled by complex intra-molecular autoinhibitory conformation and inter-molecular interactions with protein and lipid partners. The inactivation of FAK in mice results in embryonic lethality attributed to the lack of proper development and function of the heart. Accordingly, embryonic FAK myocyte-specific knockout mice display lethal cardiac defects such as thin ventricle wall and ventricular septum defects. Emerging data also support a role for FAK in the reactive hypertrophy and failure of adult hearts. Moreover, the mechanisms that regulate FAK in differentiated cardiac myocytes to biomechanical stress and soluble factors are beginning to be revealed and are discussed here together with data that connect FAK to its downstream effectors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes".
"These results suggest that FAK activity is required not only to maintain but also to recover the barrier function. Because it has been shown that binding of Src to FAK leads to full activation of FAK , we examined the association of FAK with Src and FAK phosphorylations by Src as well as FAK autophosphorylation. Significant levels of Src association and FAK phosphorylations were recognized in Caco-2 monolayers. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of epithelial barrier function was identified as one of the pathologic mechanisms in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Epithelial barrier consists of various intercellular junctions, in which the tight junction (TJ) is an important component. However, the regulatory mechanism of tight junction is still not clear. Here we examined the role of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in the epithelial barrier function on Caco-2 monolayers using a specific FAK inhibitor, PF-573, 228 (PF-228). We found that the decrease of transepithelial resistance and the increase of paracellular permeability were accompanied with the inhibition of autophosphorylation of FAK by PF-228 treatment. In addition, PF-228 inhibited the FAK phosphorylation at Y576/577 on activation loop by Src, suggesting Src-dependent regulation of FAK in Caco-2 monolayers. In an ethanol-induced barrier injury model, PF-228 treatment also inhibited the recovery of transepithelial resistance as well as these phosphorylations of FAK. In a sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, FAK co-localized with claudin-1, an element of the TJ complex, and they co-migrate after ethanol-induced barrier injury. Immunofluorescence imaging analysis revealed that PF-228 inhibited the FAK redistribution to the cell border and reassembly of TJ proteins in the recovery after ethanol-induced barrier injury. Finally, knockdown of FAK by siRNA resulted in the decrease of transepithelial resistance. These findings reveal that activation of FAK is necessary for maintaining and repairing epithelial barrier in Caco-2 cell monolayer via regulating TJ redistribution.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 10/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2012.10.006 · 4.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.
Tissue Engineering Part B Reviews 02/2012; 18(4):288-300. DOI:10.1089/ten.TEB.2011.0465 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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